Pro and Con 1232
The Prophetic Calendar
How Many Days in a Year?
..."For thus says the LORD, 'When seventy years have been completed for Babylon, I will visit you and fulfill My good word to you, to bring you back to this place. Jer 29:10
The historical and scriptural record on this prophecy is clear. When seventy standard solar years (by anyone’s calculations) were completed, Cyrus freed the Jews. If a 360 day prophetic year had been the standard, God was about a year late, since seventy of those "years" would be about 69 standard years!...
THREE WHEELS OF TIME, THE ESTIMATED CALENDAR, THE LUNAR CALENDAR, AND THE SOLAR CALENDAR
By Marilyn Agee
FIRST POINT OF ARIES
The First Point of Aries, also called the VERNAL EQUINOX point, is one of the two points on the celestial sphere where the celestial equator intersects the ecliptic. It is defined as the position of the Sun on the celestial sphere at the time of the vernal equinox. It was named after the constellation in which it occurred in ancient times - Aries. However due to precession, the point gradually moves around the ecliptic. It entered the constellation Pisces in about 500 A.D. (or around 100 A.D. if the modern constellation boundaries are used) and will enter Aquarius in about 2600 A.D.
FIRST POINT OF LIBRA
The First Point of Libra, also called the AUTUMNAL EQUINOX point, is one of the two points on the celestial sphere where the celestial equator intersects the ecliptic. It is defined as the position of the Sun on the celestial sphere at the time of the autumnal equinox. It was named after the constellation in which it occurred IN ANCIENT TIMES - Libra. However due to precession, the point gradually moves around the ecliptic. It is currently in the constellation Virgo.
History of Astronomy — The Zodiac
Ancient astronomers knew that the Lunar Month lasted APPROXIMATELY 30 days. Dividing the ecliptic into 12 signs, each of APPROXIMATELY 30 days, gave a 360-DAY LUNAR YEAR made up of 12 thirty-day Lunar Months.
THE HEAVENS DECLARE, by Dr F.J.Steed PhD
The starting point for the year [of the Hebrew Sacred Year], that is the first month of the year, has it's beginning with the first visible new moon after the vernal equinox. March - April, or in the Hebrew calendar, the month Abib [or Nisan].... [bracketed sections mine throughout]
The 12 signs are the months of travel each year around the sun.
1. ARIES the Ram or lamb the month Abib or Nisan 1st month [Vernal Equinox]
2. Taurus the Bull Iyar 2nd
3. Gemini the Twins Sivan 3rd
4. CANCER the Crab Tamuz 4th [Summer Solstice]
5. Leo the Lion Ab 5th
6. Virgo the Virgin Elul 6th
7. LIBRA the Balance Tishri 7th [Autumnal Equinox]
8. Scorpio the Scorpion Marcheshvan 8th
9. Sagittarius the Archer Kisler 9th
10.CAPRICORNUS the Goat Teves 10th [Winter Solstice]
11.Aquarius the Waterman Schwat 11th
12.Pisces the Fishes Adar 12th
Making time for a new year, By Fred Schaaf
Rosh Hashanah is the Jewish New Year (Civil Year). The name means "head of the year."...it starts at sunset on THE DAY OF THE NEW MOON CLOSEST TO THE AUTUMN EQUINOX.
The earliest datable source for the Hebrew calendar is the Gezer Calendar, written probably in the age of Solomon, in the late 10th century BC.
The inscription indicates the length of main agricultural tasks within the cycle of 12 lunations. The calendar term here is yereah, which in Hebrew denotes both "moon" and "month."
The second Hebrew term for month, hodesh, properly means the "newness" of the LUNAR CRESCENT.
Mad Farmers' Jubilee Almanack
The Jewish Calendar: Is a lunar solar calendar, each year contains 12
months of either 29 or 30 days. An Intercalary month is added every few
The month is measured from the moon's exact conjunction with the sun,
which occurs every 29 days, 12 hours, 44 minutes, and 3 1/2 seconds.
MY THOUGHTS ON THE 360-DAY ESTIMATED YEAR, THE 354,36705-DAY LUNAR YEAR, THE 365.242242-DAY SOLAR YEAR AND THE BIBLICAL LUNAR-SOLAR CALENDAR
The conjuction is the dark of the Moon. I think Hebrew months start when the Crescent New Moon is sighted, as the Hebrew word chodesh indicates.
This is food for thought. I will show the inter-working of the ESTIMATED, LUNAR AND SOLAR calendars as I understand it today.
I think the ancient Biblical Lunar-Solar Year from Adam to the Exodus began to be counted at the sighting of the Crescent New Moon nearest to the Sun's arriving at the FIRST POINT OF LIBRA (the autumnal equinox). God breathed the breath of life into Adam on Friday, probably late in the day. At sunset, the next day, Saturday, Tishri 1, the 7th day of the week, began. That was the day God rested, and this "kosmos" began to operate as it does today.
At the Exodus, the Biblical Sacred Year began Nisan 1, but the Biblical Civil Calendar starting Tishri 1 still counted the ages of the people. Since the months started when the Crescent New Moon was sighted, that Lunar calendar lagged behind the Solar Year. The difference was made up when the Lunar Calendar was behind by about 30 days. An extra month, Adar II, was added before Nisan when necessary. This allowed every month to begin when the Crescent New Moon was sighted.
The Bible is consistent. Therefore, we can extrapolate the Biblical Civil Calendar forward and backward to figure out how it operated. The 2nd month in Noah's day was the 2nd month in Adam's day. We can also see that man kept track of the years right from the first. How he kept track of years, months and days is what we are after here. How do the three types of calendars, ESTIMATED, LUNAR and SOLAR mesh?
Gen. 7:11 is the first mention of the word "month" (chodesh). According to the Law of First Mention, how "month" is used in Gen. 7 and 8 is probably how it is used throughout Scripture.
Gen 7:11 says, "In the six hundredth year (i.e., the Lunar-Solar Year, starting Tishri 1) of Noah's life, in the SECOND MONTH (chodesh, the Crescent New Moon), the seventeenth day of the month (Cheshvan 17), the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened."
To keep my head straight as I read Gen. 7 and 8, the account of Noah's Flood, I felt the need to plot the dates on a calendar. Not able to come up with one that far back, I tried something else. Since there are 365 days from Cheshvan 17, 5767 (Nov. 8, 2006) and Cheshvan 27, 5767 (Nov. 8, 2007), I plotted the dates given in Gen. 7 and 8 on the Hebrew/Gregorian calendars for 2006 and 2007 that I have. The dates all fit except one. Nisan 17 is the 148th day from Cheshvan 17. It should be the 150th day. Therefore, the Hebrew Calendars I chose at random are not exactly the same as in Noah's day. However, they are close enough to show me something that I had missed before. The 150 days of Gen. 7:24 INCLUDE the 40 days of rain.
Obviously, after the Exodus, the feast days that were at first reckoned by ESTIMATED 30-day months were adjusted when the Crescent New Moon could be seen. Lunar months only filled the space of 354 or 355 days of the 365-day Solar Year, so adjustments had to be made as they went along. Instead of making 10 or 11 day adjustments, they waited until a one-month adjustment could be made. The advantage of this is that every month could start on the day the Crescent New Moon was seen. Everyone, no matter how many miles apart, could determine when the new month began by watching the Moon.
The 360-day year of twelve 30-day months was used to ESTIMATE future time. The chronology of the great-Flood year throws light on how the Biblical Calendar operated. Anstey said, "The Hebrews always reckoned 30 days to the month, except when they saw the New Moon on the 30th, which became the 1st day of the new month." The Lunar Calendar could be adjusted each time they saw the Crescent New Moon. That determined which day was the first day of the new month. The Lunar Year was adjusted by the state of the crops in the spring.
From the Crescent New Moon seen at Adam's creation, the first day of the year was at the Crescent New Moon nearest the Autumnal Equinox. At Mt. Sinai, God added the Sacred Year starting at the first Crescent New Moon after the Vernal Equinox in the spring, but both the Civil and Sacred Years continued to operate. The first month of the Civil Year is Tishri 1. At that time, the Sun is entering Virgo. The first month of the Sacred Year is Nisan 1. At that time, the Sun is in Aries.
At first, Kennedy's MEASURING time versus COMPUTING time was not too clear to me, but now, I think I have at least a glimmer of what he meant.
Here is the way I understand it. In the beginning, man must have been given three calendars, the ESTIMATED Calendar, the LUNAR Calendar and the SOLAR Calendar. Gen. 1:14,16 says, "God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years...And God made two great lights (Sun and Moon); the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night".
Measuring time in the Bible is by using the Luni-Solar Calendar. In the long run, it just about equals the 365.242242-day Solar Years between two events, such as from the creation of Adam to Noah's Flood--1656 Solar Years (BC 2387).
As man approached each one of these 1656 years, the year ahead of him was ESTIMATED to be made up of 360 days divided into twelve 30-day segments. Why? because he could not yet see the Crescent New Moons in the year ahead to set correctly the first day of each month in the Lunar Calendar.
As man lived through each year, he would be able to see the Crescent New Moon and set the first of each month correctly according the the Lunar Calendar. It wouldn't matter how many days the previous month had, 29 or 30, he would start the new month when he saw the Crescent New Moon. Thus, the 30-day ESTIMATED MONTHS were adjusted by the LUNAR CALENDAR as they went along. The 360-day ESTIMATED YEARS could be adjusted by the SOLAR CALENDAR as they went along, because one trip of the Sun back to a certain starting point would be one 365.242242-day year. This wheel of time is accurate. The others need periodic adjustments.
When the Crescent New Moon could not be seen because of bad weather, the month was estimated as having 30 days. The Lunar Calendar would automatically adjust itself correctly when the next Crescent New Moon was seen. As they went along, the ESTIMATED Calendar would be adjusted according to the LUNAR Calendar, which would later be adjusted according to the SOLAR Calendar.
In the 600th year of Noah's life, the Flood came on the 17th day of the 2nd month (Cheshvan). The 600th year had started on the 1st month, 1st day, Tishri 1, as had every year of the 1656.
Gen 7:6,11 says, "Noah was six hundred years old when the flood of waters was upon the earth....In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month (Cheshvan/Heshvan), the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened."
On Cheshvan 17, Noah entered the Ark, and the Lord shut the door. On that same day, it began to storm and rain. Noah couldn't SEE the phases of the Moon for 150 days. He could only COUNT THE DAYS, sunset to sunset. Therefore, he estimated the time by 30-day months.
"After the end of the hundred and fifty days (17 Cheshvan to 17 Nisan, 5 x 30 = 150) the waters were abated. And the ark rested in the seventh month (Nisan), on the seventeenth day of the month, upon the mountains of Ararat" (Gen. 8:3,4). Therefore, Noah saw the Crescent Moon that began the month of Nisan.
Noah could then determine the exact first day of Nisan instead of estimating by rounded-off 30-day months. He adjusted the ESTIMATED CALENDAR by the VISUAL LUNAR CALENDAR as soon as it was possible to see the Crescent New Moon.
Gen. 8:13-16 says, "it came to pass in the six hundredth and first year (of Noah), in the first month, the first day of the month (Tishri 1), the waters were dried up from off the earth: and Noah removed the covering of the ark, and looked, and, behold, the face of the ground was dry. And in the second month, on the seven and twentieth day of the month (Cheshvan 27), was the earth dried. And God spake unto Noah, saying, Go forth of the ark".
On Cheshvan 27, the SOLAR YEAR was complete. Noah had been in the Ark 365 days, one 354-day LUNAR YEAR plus 11 days. In this one account, we can see that the ESTIMATED YEAR was corrected by the LUNAR YEAR, and the LUNAR YEAR was corrected by the SOLAR YEAR.
Understanding that future months were estimated as being 30-day months helps us understand other scriptures. For instance, Dan. 12:11 says, "from the time that the daily sacrifice shall be taken away, and the abomination that maketh desolate set up [Mid-Trib], there shall be A THOUSAND TWO HUNDRED AND NINETY DAYS." It looks like that 1290 days is the ESTIMATED 1260 days, plus the extra 30 days added in a Leap Year. The final year of the Tribulation will be a Leap Year. There will be 7 months instead of the usual 6 between the Day of Destruction on Tishri 1 and the Second Advent on the following Nisan 1 (Eze. 39:12,13).
Rev 11:3 says, "I will give power unto my two witnesses [Moses and Elijah], and they shall prophesy a thousand two hundred and threescore days, clothed in sackcloth." This is in the future and is probably an ESTIMATED 3.5 year span.
Rev 12:6 says, "the woman [Israel] fled into the wilderness, where she hath a place [Petra] prepared of God, that they should feed her there a thousand two hundred and threescore days." This is to take place in the future. Therefore, as an ESTIMATE, we can assume that this span is forty-two 30-day months, knowing that the days of the month can be adjusted a bit when the Crescent New Moon is seen as the actual days tick by.
Rev 11:2,3 says, "the court which is without the temple leave out, and measure it not; for it is given unto the Gentiles: and the holy city shall they tread under foot FORTY AND TWO MONTHS. And I will give power unto my two witnesses, and they shall prophesy A THOUSAND TWO HUNDRED AND THREESCORE DAYS, clothed in sackcloth." Rev 13:5 says, "power was given unto him (the first Beast) to continue FORTY AND TWO MONTHS." Being future, I think this period is forty-two 30-day ESTIMATED months (42 x 30 = 1260), the first half of the Tribulation.
Daniel 8:25's "TIME AND TIMES AND THE DIVIDING OF TIME" (i.e., 3.5 years) can be ESTIMATED as 1260 days. This span of ESTIMATED time could change to 1290 days, if one of the three years turned out to be a Leap Year.
This happens in Dan. 12:7 and 11. In 12:7, the space is "A TIME, TIMES, AND AN HALF", or an estimated 1260 days. In verse 11, the same ESTIMATED space is 1290 days, because that final year is a Leap Year with a 13th month, Adar II. Verse 11 says, And from the time that the daily sacrifice shall be taken away, and the abomination that maketh desolate set up (Mid-Trib), there shall be a thousand two hundred and ninety days."
Dan. 9:27 also mentions abominations, so "in the midst of the week" is Mid-Trib. Therefore, the Great Tribulation can be estimated to last 1290 days instead of 1260. Then that last year is a Leap Year. Maybe it will be 5771 (2010/2011).
However, the Great Tribulation is to be shortened. Mt. 24:21,22 says, "For then shall be great tribulation (thlipsis, trouble), such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be. And except those days (of the 'great tribulation') should be shortened, there should no flesh be saved: but for the elect's [the Tribulation saint's] sake those days shall be shortened." We need to keep this in mind as we look for clues.
ESTIMATED TIME OF THE FIRST HALF OF THE TRIBULATION--THE FIRST 1260 days, OR FORTY-TWO 30-DAY MONTHS
Rev 11:2,3 says, "the court which is without the temple leave out, and measure it not; for it is given unto the Gentiles: and the holy city shall they tread under foot FORTY AND TWO MONTHS [forty-two 30-day ESTIMATED months]. And I will give power unto my two witnesses, and they shall prophesy A THOUSAND TWO HUNDRED AND THREESCORE DAYS, clothed in sackcloth."
Rev. 13:5 says, "And there was given unto him (the first beast) a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies; and power was given unto him to continue FORTY AND TWO MONTHS."
Only the first half of the Tribulation is said to be 42 months.
ESTIMATED TIME OF THE LAST HALF OF THE TRIBULATION--THE SECOND 1260 DAYS, OR 3.5 YEARS
Rev 12:6,14 says, "the woman (Israel) fled into the wilderness, where she hath a place prepared of God, that they should feed her there A THOUSAND TWO HUNDRED AND THREESCORE DAYS....And to the woman were given two wings of a great eagle, that she might fly into the wilderness, into her place, where she is nourished for A TIME, AND TIMES, AND HALF A TIME (3.5 years), from the face of the serpent."
Dan. 7:23-26 says, "another (the False Prophet) shall rise after them; and he shall be diverse from the first (first beast of Rev. 13), and he shall subdue three kings. And he shall speak great words against the most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until A TIME AND TIMES AND THE DIVIDING OF TIME (3.5 years). But the judgment shall sit (i.e., the Judgment Seat of Christ, on Tishri 1, the Feast of Trumpets, the Day of the Lord), and they shall take away his [the False Prophet's] dominion [on Tishri 1], to consume and to destroy it unto the end" (of 1290 days).
Dan. 12:6,7 says, "How long shall it be to the end of these wonders? And I heard the man clothed in linen, which was upon the waters of the river, when he held up his right hand and his left hand unto heaven, and sware by him that liveth for ever that it shall be for A TIME, TIMES, AND AN HALF (3.5 years); and when he shall have accomplished to scatter the power of the holy people, all these things shall be finished.
Only the last half of the Tribulation, the Great Tribulation is said to be A TIME, TIMES, AND AN HALF (3.5 years).
ESTIMATED TIME OF THE LAST HALF OF THE TRIBULATION WITH A LEAP YEAR INCLUDED--1260 PLUS ONE 30-DAY MONTH EQUALS 1290 DAYS
Dan 12:11, "And from the time that the daily sacrifice shall be taken away (Mid-Trib), and the abomination that maketh desolate set up, there shall be A THOUSAND TWO HUNDRED AND NINETY DAYS."
The last year of the 3.5-year Great Tribulation will be a Leap Year (1260 + 30 = 1290). It will have Adar II added. Here's some proof that the 30-day month is estimated time. Adar II only has 29 days, not 30.
THE TRIBULATION, A 7-YEAR BLOCK OF TIME
The Hebrew Calendar has Leap Years about every 3 years. In a block of 7 years, there could be three Leap Years.
EXAMPLES: FIRST SET OF 7 YEARS
(1) 5765 (2004/2005) Leap Year
(2) 5766 (2005/2006)
(3) 5767 (2006/2007)
(4) 5768 (2007/2008) Leap Year
(5) 5769 (2008/2009)
(6) 5770 (2009/2010)
(7) 5771 (2010/2011) Leap Year
SECOND SET OF 7 YEARS
(1) 5768 (2007/2008) Leap Year
(2) 5769 (2008/2009)
(3) 5770 (2009/2010)
(4) 5771 (2010/2011) Leap Year
(5) 5772 (2011/2012)
(6) 5773 (2012/2013)
(7) 5774 (2013/2014) Leap Year
If the Tribulation is made up of exactly two 1260-day blocks, what would you do with the extra months added in Leap Years? I can't see a place where you could put 3.5 years without having a Leap Year to contend with.
I think the 1260-day block is ESTIMATED time, forty-two 30-day months--as there were five ESTIMATED 30-day months in the days of Noah, because Noah could not see the Crescent New Moon for 150 days. All he could do at that time was to count days, from sunset to sunset. Daniel 12:11's 1290 days is the clue we needed to understand this, and the verse before it says, "none of the wicked shall understand; but the wise shall understand."
Dan 12:7 says, "I heard the man clothed in linen, which was upon the waters of the river, when he held up his right hand and his left hand unto heaven, and sware by him that liveth for ever that it shall be for A TIME, TIMES, AND AN HALF [the last 3.5 years]; and when he shall have accomplished to scatter the power of the holy people, ALL THESE THINGS SHALL BE FINISHED." We can now see that this statement is true, because whether the days were 1260 or 1290, it still would be 3.5 years. A Leap Year is counted as one year.
The end time days will be shortened (Mt. 24:21,22), but here are some dates I looked up. The 2520 days is 1260 x 2. The 2300 days is found in Dan. 8:13,14. I used these calendar programs.
Calendar Converter: http://www.fourmilab.ch/documents/calendar/
Time and Date: http://www.timeanddate.com/date/dateadded.html?m1=4&d1=1&y1=2014&type=sub&ay=&am=&ad=2300&aw=
THE NEXT LEAP YEAR AFTER 5768
Tishri 1, 5771 [Sept 9, 2010] minus 2520 days was Iyar 14, 5763 (May 16, 2003)
Tishri 1, 5771 [Sept 9, 2010] minus 2300 days was Kislev 27, 5764 (Dec 22, 2003)
Nisan 1, 5771 [April 5, 2011] minus 2520 days was Iyar 20, 5764 (May 11, 2004)
Nisan 1, 5771 [April 5, 2011] minus 2300 days was Teveth 5, 5765 (Dec 17, 2004)
THE NEXT LEAP YEAR AFTER 5771
Tishri 1, 5774 [Sept 5, 2013] minus 2520 days is Tishri 20, 5767 (Oct 12, 2006)
Tabernacles is Tishri 15 and lasts 8 days
Tishri 1, 5774 [Sept 5, 2013] minus 2300 days is Sivan 3, 5767 (May 20, 2007)
Pentecost is Sivan 7
Nisan 1, 5774 [April 1, 2014] minus 2520 days will be Iyar 20, 5767 (May 8, 2007)
Nisan 1, 5774 [April 1, 2014] minus 2300 days will be Teveth 5, 5768 (Dec 14, 2007)
Archeology: News from the Field
10 Aug 2005
Two recent excavations uncover ancient water systems.
Monumental water system of biblical times uncovered by archeologists near Jerusalem
Archeologists this week completed eight weeks of digging at a cave close to Kibbutz Tzuba near Jerusalem, revealing a monumental rock-hewn water system dating back to the time of King Hezekiah, from the 8th century BCE. Last year the site received world-wide attention with the discovery of a cave said to have been used by John the Baptist and his followers for baptism purposes and cultic rituals....
The archeological work at this site is being undertaken by a team led by Dr. Shimon Gibson and Professor James Tabor of the University of North Carolina...
“This is one of the most exciting sites I have excavated during my entire archaeological career,” said Gibson this week. “Not only do we have a cave that appears to have been used by a party of baptizers in the 1st century CE, but it would appear that it was chosen for three reasons: for its seclusion, size and antiquity....
The recent excavations have shown that the cave where the baptisms took place was part of a much larger Iron Age water system, rock-cut in places to a depth of some twenty metres (65 feet). It was a monumental enterprise with a vertical shaft, an open horizontal corridor, a flight of stone steps above a tunnel, and three external plastered pools, all of which was on the slope above an underground reservoir....
King David's fabled palace: Is this it?
By Steven Erlanger, 8-5-05
Gulf of Mexico Mystery
8-10-05 About 20 dead sea turtles have washed ashore in Pinellas County in the past three days, an extremely high number that has doctors and scientists puzzled....
Dive instructor Michael Miller took underwater video to try to figure out the mystery.
"Right now, anywhere we go from shore to 20 miles offshore, from Sarasota to Tarpon Springs, we can't find a single creature alive on the bottom right now," said Miller.
Miller says he's never seen such death and devastation under water in his 20 years of diving.
"All the coral, all the sponges, all the crabs, not a single living thing, all the star fish, the brittle stars, everything's dead," said Miller.
Click here for an enlarged image of more dead sea life.
Gorgeous auroras, APOD, August 7, 2005
Pro and Con 1233 Or Return
Contact me for more information at: firstname.lastname@example.org
8641 Sugar Gum Rd, Riverside, CA 92508, USA; (951) 653-4110
© 1996-2005, Marilyn J. Agee