Pro and Con 1004

Posted 2-27-03

Incoming email

Zion's Cry Participants praised a resolution presented at the United Nations this week by France and Germany that suggests giving the U.N. weapons inspectors another four months to do their work in Iraq. http://news.yahoo.com/news?tmpl=story2&cid=578&ncid=578&e=12&u=/nm/20030226/ts_nm/iraq_islamic_oil_dc

MJA: Four months, hmmm. Maybe March, April, May and June? Pentecost is June 6,7, 2003.

Incoming email about Rich Pope

Amazing correspondence from Rich Pope. Christ is standing at the door and knocking hard at his heart, and it appears the man is finally beginning to hear it. By God's Grace and the blood shed by Jesus, His Son, may Rich finally see the truth and open his eyes and his heart to our Lord and Savior. In Christ's Name!

My reply

Amen! Agape

Incoming email, Re: Blessings to you for Rich Pope

I nearly jumped for joy to read procon 1003 and Rich Pope's transformation.You did well to continue the battle and share it with us.Rich has overcome his "intelligence" and laid down his burden.Funny that the www.shroud.com site was the source of his reflection.

My reply

It is evident that the Holy Spirit of Messiah Yeshua is working in his behalf. I hope that means that he knows Rich will be saved. Agape

Incoming email, Re: INTERESTING STUDY, From David Parker

here is an interesting email I received re the study of the chronology we have been looking at. I still will not draw a conclusion on this issue. It does look like the crucifixion was in either 30, 31, 32, or 33 AD. Cases can and have been made for each year.

Here is the email which is quite interesting. dp
---
Grace and peace to you in Christ Jesus!

You wrote: Can you tell me what day of the week April 14th, 0032 AD was? Evidently some calendar programs have it as being on Wednesday and others have it as a Monday. ... Is part of the issue the use of the Gregorian vs. the Julian calendar? However, the days of the week which we now have should remain a constant as we go back in time..right?

According to the U.S. Naval Observatory, April 14th fell on a Monday in 32AD. Yet, just as you have also found, other sources declare it to be Wednesday. The apparent differing opinion may be due to the choice of Julian or Gregorian reckoning by the various sites. I am unsure of the methods used by these sites, but I am quite aware that the week as we know it has come down to us without change since creation:

"As to Question (2)--There has been no change in our calendar in past centuries that has affected in any way the cycle of the week." --James Robertson, personal letter, dated March 12, 1932. [Dr. Robertson was Director of the American Ephemeris, Navy Department, U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington, D.C.]

"As far as I know, in the various changes of the Calendar there has been no change in the seven day rota of the week, which has come down from very early times." --F.W. Dyson, Personal letter, dated March 4, 1932. [Dr. Dyson was Astronomer Royal, Royal Observatory, Greenwich, London.]

"Some of these (the Jews and also many Christians) accept the week as of divine institution, with which it is unlawful to tamper; others, without these scruples, still feel that it is useful to maintain a time-unit that, unlike all others, has proceeded in an absolutely invariable manner since what may be called the dawn of history." --"Our Astronomical Column," Nature, London, number 127, June 6, 1931, p. 869

"The week of seven days has been in use ever since the days of the Mosaic dispensation, and we have no reason for supposing that any irregularities have existed in the succession of weeks and their days from that time to the present." --Dr. W.W.Campbell, Statement. [Dr. Campbell was Director of Lick Observatory, Mt.Hamilton, California.]

"By calculating the eclipses, it can be proven that no time has been lost and that the creation days were seven, divided into twenty-four hours each." --Dr. Hinckley,The Watchman, July, 1926. [Dr. Hinckley was a well-known astronomer]

"In spite of all of our dickerings with the calendar, it is patent that the human race never lost the septenary [seven-day] sequence of week days and that the Sabbath of these latter times comes down to us from Adam, through the ages, without a singlelapse." --Dr. Totten, Statement. [Dr. Totten of New Haven, Connecticut, was Professor of Astronomy at Yale University when this statement was made.]

"The continuity of the week has crossed the centuries and all known calendars, still intact." --Professor D.Eginitis, Statement. [Dr. Eginitis was Director of the Observatory of Athens,Greece.]

"It is a strange fact that even today there is a great deal of confusion concerning the question of so-called 'lost time.' Alterations that have been made to the calendar in the past have left the impression that time has actually been lost. In point of fact, of course, these adjustments were made to bring the calendar into closer agreement with the natural [solar] year. Now, unfortunately, this supposed 'lost time' is still being used to throw doubt upon the unbroken cycle of the Seventh-day Sabbath that God inaugurated at the Creation. I am glad I can add the witness of my scientific training to the irrevocable nature of the weekly cycle. Having been time computer at Greenwich for many years, I can testify that all our days are in God's absolute control--relentlessly measured by the daily rotation of the earth on its axis. This daily period of rotation does not vary one-thousandth part of a second in thousands of years. Also, the year is a very definite number of days. Consequently, it can be said that not a day has been lost since Creation, and all the calendar changes notwithstanding, there has been no break in the weekly cycle." --Frank Jeffries, Statement. [Dr.Jeffries was Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society, and Research Director of the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, England.]

For more understanding of the issue the continuity of the weekly cycle throughout the calendar changes, please access our page Has Time Been Lost? for online reading or printing, or access our Download page to secure your copy of this article there: Downloads-truthontheweb.org

What is another factor is that there was a full lunar eclipse on that day.

A lunar eclipse occurs whenever the moon passes directly through earth's orbital plane and is covered by earth's dark shadow (though the moon is never completely darkened by this event due to refraction of the sunlight from the other side of the earth). This occurs once or twice every year and the resulting eclipse can only be seen from the half of the earth experiencing night.

Thanks for your help and any additional comments.

I assume your inquiries are revolving around the timing of the death of our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ. What in your research has led you to this date and year?

Regarding the lunar eclipse of the date above (or ANY lunar eclipse), please take note that these eclipses only appear to the side of the earth experiencing night at the time, and thus this is not applicable to the event of the three hours darkness from noon til three in the afternoon of our Lord's sacrifice.

Also, the event cannot be determined by looking for records of solar eclipses, for though they occur in the daylight, they only occur at the time of conjunction (dark moon, not full moon), and our Master died upon the Passover which occurs at full moon time. What occured that day was truly a miracle of YHWH!

Now regarding the year of Jesus' death and resurrection, I leave with you some of my research into this area of study. It is built upon both Scriptural and secular histories:

"Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene, Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests, the word of God came unto John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness." (Luke 3:1,2)

Concerning these two verses, let's lay out some historical facts. It's a bit much, so bear with me. Take your time reading so as not to confuse any information.

David Stern, in The Jewish New Testament Commentary, notes the following concerning Luke 3:1 & 2: "...Tiberius was Emperor of Rome from the death of Augustus in 14C.E. (see 2:1N) until 37 C.E. After Hordos (Herod) the Great died in 4 B.C.E. (see Mt 2:1N), his kingdom was divided. The region of Y'hudah [Judea] was at first ruled by Herod's son Archelaus (Mt 2:22) until he was disposed of in 6 C.E. After that it was ruled by a Roman "procurator"; this office was held by Pontius Pilate (see Mt 27:2N) from 26 to 36 C.E. North of Y'hudah [Judea] the region of the Galil [Galilee] was ruled by another of Herod the Great's sons, Herod Antipas, from 4 B.C.E. until 39 C.E. East of Galil [Galilee] a third son of Herod the Great, Herod Philip, ruled Iturea and Trachonitis from 4 B.C.E. until 34C.E. And to the north, northwest of Damascus, the region around the city of Abilene was ruled by one Lysanias, mentioned in inscriptions but not clearly identified.

2 With Anan (Annas) and Kayafa (Caiaphas) being the cohanim g'dolim (high priests). Could there be two highpriests? No, Anan was cohen gadol for some years until 15 C.E. and was then deposed by the Romans--the office was no longer held for life but was manipulated by the Romans for political purposes. Anan's son-in-law Kayafa [Caiaphas] attained the office in 25 or 26 C.E. and was deposed of in 36 [C.E./A.D.]; he is mentioned in all four gospels as the cohen gadol presiding over Yeshua's [Jesus'] two trials...nevertheless Anan remained a powerful figure (see Yn [John] 18:12-24&NN), and it was natural to continue calling him cohen gadol (compare Ac 4:6), since for Jews, this office was held for life." (all emboldened & italicized emphasis above is that of Stern).

Now it would appear from the above information that viewing 29 A.D. as being Tiberius' 15th year could be correct (IF his reign was calculated from 14AD by Luke). But, let's dig a little further into this matter.

A Dictionary of the Bible (James Hastings,Vol 4, p 760, article: TIBERIUS), states: "The second Roman emporer, A.D. 14-37. The former [14 AD] is the date of Tiberius' accession on the death of Augustus. But there is good reason to suppose that St. Luke (3:1) in his reference to the 15th year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, as the beginning of John the Baptist's ministry, is reckoning from the date of Tiberius' association with Augustus in the empire some two years before the death of the latter......The exact year of Tiberius' adoption by his stepfather in the government is not known. Mommsen puts it A.D. 11, other authorities A.D. 13. Perhaps the use of the word hegemonia (AV and RV 'reign') implies that Tiberius was only acting as regent before the death of Augustus. From the evidence of coins struck at this date it is shown that it was customary to regard Tiberius' reign as beginning A.D. 12 or A.U.C. 765."

Such co-regency is reaffirmed in The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (edited by George Bromily, Vol 4, p. 847, article: TIBERIUS),which states: "Successor of Augustus Caesar as the second Roman emperor. Born Tiberius Claudius Nero on November 16, 42 B.C., his father--of the same name--was an officer under Julius Caesar. His mother, Livia Drusilla of the Claudian family, divorced his father in 38 B.C. and became the third wife of Augustus....When all hope of direct succession was lost, both he [Tiberius] and Agrippa Postumus were adopted relunctantly by Augustus on June 26, A.D. 4, at which time he was renamed Tiberius Julius Caesar and appointed tribune. Eight years later he became military governor of the Roman provinces and soon was raised by special law to a position of co-regency (A.D. 13; A.D. 11 according to Mommsen)."

This fact of co-regency of Tiberius with Augustus is again reaffirmed by E.W. Bullinger. In his Companion Bible (p. 1438, footnote for Luke 3:1), it states: "Augustus died in A.D. 14, but Tiberius was associated with him for two or three years. This would make Tiberius' 15th year A.D.26. reign = government Gr. hegemonia (not basileia =kingdom)."

So how do we know what date to go by? Did Luke compute from his Tiberius' co-regency or from Augustus' death? We need to live by every word of God--place Scripture upon Scripture--searching them to see if things are so. We now need to consider another important Scripture that helps us to determine what year Luke considers to be Tiberius's 15th. Taking place shortly after Jesus' baptism (John 1:29 on through), it gives us a time reference as to when Jesus' ministry began:

John 2:13, 18-21 "And the Jews' passover was at hand, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem....Then answered the Jews and said unto him, What sign shewest thouunto us, seeing that thou doest these things? Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up. Then said the Jews, Forty and six years was this temple in building, and wilt thou rear it up in three days? But he spake of the temple of his body."

The Scriptures here note that at the time shortly after Jesus' baptism and nearing the first Passover of His ministry, the Jews stated that Herod's temple had been in building for forty-six years. When did the building of this temple commence?

E.W. Bullinger, in his Companion Bible (p. 1517, footnote for John 2:20), states: "Forty and six years. Begun B.C. 20. See Josephus,Wars, I. xxi. 1."

Let us then examine Josephus. He recorded the following:

"Accordingly, in the fifteenth year of his reign, Herod rebuilt the temple, and encompassed a piece of land about it with a wall." [The Works of Josephus, William Whiston (translator), The Wars of the Jews, Book 1, Chap. 21, 1 (emphasis mine)].

Yet, he also stated: "And now Herod, in the eighteenth year of his reign, and after the acts already mentioned, undertook a very great work, that is, to build himself the temple of God..." [The Works of Josephus, William Whiston (translator), The Antiquities of the Jews, Book 15, Chap 11, 1 (emphasis mine)]

What is one to make of this discrepancy?

A Dictionary of the Bible (James Hastings, Vol 1, p 405, article: CHRONOLOGY OFTHE NEW TESTAMENT, 2,C.a), states: "Herod's temple was begun, according to BJ [a.k.a. Wars of the Jews] in his 15th, according to Ant. [Antiquities of the Jews] in his 18th year (BJ I. XXi. 1; Ant. XV. xi. 1); and as Jos. [Josephus] in both books summarizes the length of Herod's reign by a double computation from the de jure kingship in B.C. 40, and the de facto kingship in B.C. 37, an ["]obvious["] solution of the discrepancy would be to count the 15th year from the later, and the 18th year from the earlier, of the two starting-points, both reckonings then converging on B.C. 23. But in fact Jos., when he gives a single date, invariably computes it from the de facto kingship only. So in Ant...the battle of Actium (Sept., B.C. 31) is put in the 7th year of Herod; Augustus' second visit to Syria, which was not earlier than B.C. 21 (for it was ten years after the first [visit], and that in turn was after Actium [31 BC], is dated in the seventeenth year [of Herod's reign]; and the completion of Caesarea is fixed in the 92nd Olympiad (B.C. 12-8), and in the 28th year [of Herod's reign] (Ant.XV. v. 2, vi. 7, XVI. v. 1; BJ I. xx. 4). Seeing, then, that the divergence cannot be accounted for as a double reckoning, it must arise from the correction in Ant. of an error in BJ, so that Josephus' ultimate date is the 18th year from B.C. 37, or in other words B.C.20-19, and the passover of the first year will be probably that of B.C. 19, and the passover of the 46th year that of A.D. 27. Thus the latest date for the Baptism is the early months of A.D.27."

The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (edited by George Bromily,Vol 2, p. 690, article: HEROD), states: "In late 40 or early 39 B.C. Herod returned to Palestine, and with the help of Antony's legate Sossius was able to recapture Galilee [perhaps this is why Josephus, at one point, noted 40 B.C. to be the beginning of his reign]. Finally in the spring of 37[B.C.], he laid seige to Jerusalem. Before the fall of Jerusalem Herod married Mariamne, neice of Antigonus, to whom he had been betrothed for five years. The intention of this marriage was to spite Antigonus and to strengthen Herod's claim to the throne since she was a Hasmonean. Jerusalem fell in the summer of 37 (Ant.xiv. 15.8-16.2 [439-480]; BJ i.16.7-18.2 [320-352]; Tacitus Hist. v.9; Dio Cassius xlix.22). Herod requested that the Roman's behead Antigonus (BJ i.18.3 [357]; Plutarch Antony xxxvi; cf. also Dio Cassius xlix.22), thus ending the Hasmonean rule. Herod, therefore, became king of the Jews [in 37 B.C.--the beginning of his reign and the correct date for determining the rebuilding of the temple]."

The ISBE (edited by George Bromily, Vol 4, p 770, article: TEMPLE, sec.B), furthers states: "Work on the temple began in Herod's eighteenth year, 20-19 B.C."

A Dictionary of the Bible (James Hastings, Vol 1, p 406, article: CHRONOLOGY OFTHE NEW TESTAMENT, 2) states: "The mission of the Baptist in the 15th year of Tiberius, calculated from A.D. 11, will fall in A.D. 25-26 ; the Baptism of Christ may be assigned to A.D. 26-27 ;and the first passover of the Ministry, being at the same time the passover of the 46th year of the temple building [John 2:20], will follow in the spring of A.D. 27."

Gleaning the facts from all the above information, we discover the following:

37 BC Jerusalem falls. Antigonus beheaded, thereby ending Hasmonean rule. Herod becomes king of the Jews.

31-30 BC Herod's 7th year of reign. Battle of Actium occurs in September 31 AD. Sometime thereafter, Augustus visits Syria.

21-20 BC Herod's 17th year of reign. Augustus' second visit to Syria, which was not earlier than B.C. 21 (for it was ten years after the first visit, and that in turn was after the Battle of Actium in 31 BC).

20-19 BC Herod's 18th year of reign. Work on temple begins [ties with John 2:20].

10-9 BC Herod's 28th year of reign. Completion of Caesarea [within the 92nd Olympiad B.C. 12-8)].

5 BC John the Baptist born (perhaps Abib/Nisan 14 or 15). Jesus born (perhaps Ethanim/Tishri 15).

4 BC Herod the Great dies. Herod Antipas becomes ruler of Galilee (reigns from 4 B.C.-39 A.D.). Philip becomes ruler of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis (reigns from 4 B.C.-34 A.D.). Archelaus becomes ethnarch of Judea (reigns until 6 A.D.)....

6 AD Archelaus (Matt 2:22) deposed as ruler of Judaea, Samaria, and Idumea. Coponius becomes first procurator of Judea (reigns from 6-9 A.D.?), who was followed in office by Marcus Ambivius (9-12 A.D.?), who was followed by Annius Rufus (12-15 A.D.?), who was followed by Valerius Gratus (15-26 A.D.). (A Dictionary of the Bible,Vol 3, p 876, article: PILATE)

6-7 AD Annas appointed high priest (hold office until 14-15 A.D.).

11-12 AD Tiberius Caesar becomes the military governor of the Roman provinces and begins his reign as co-regent with Augustus Caesar.

14 AD Augustus Caesar dies. Tiberius becomes Roman emperor.

25-26 AD Caiaphas becomes high priest (appointed by Valerius Gratus). Pontius Pilate becomes Roman procurator of Judaea, replacing Gratus.

26-27AD The fifteenth year of Tiberius' reign. John the Baptist begins his ministry. Jesus is baptized. Jews remark that Herod's temple has been forty-six years in building (Jn 2:20). [20-19 B.C. to 26-27 A.D.]

David, I hope all of this is a help to you in your studies and your faith. Please feel free to share your views, and whatever findings you happen upon, with us. I hope to find a solid answer to the discrepancy of the sites regarding the day of the week of April 14th in 32ad. If I do, I'll be sure to share my findings with you. Take care, and may the God and Father of our Master Jesus Christ be with you! in agape, Brian Hoeck

My reply

Thanks for sending this interesting article.

> > the days of the week which we now have should remain a constant as we go back in time..right?

That sounds right. The date changed, not the days of the week.

Re: a 30 AD Crucifixion: Martin Anstey said in "The Romance of Bible Chronology" that he found an 82-year mistake in the era of the Persian kings. Therefore, BC 536 - 82 = BC 454. In Daniel 9, we find that 483 years would pass between BC 454 and the death of Messiah. (483 - 454 + 1 [no zero year] = 30 AD). The Crucifixion was in 30 AD.

Priests begin their ministry at 30. Since Jesus is the High Priest, he would naturally begin his ministry when he was 30. He was born in BC 5. (30 - BC 5 + 1 = 26 AD). AD 26 was also the 15th year of Tiberius' reign.

> > From the evidence of coins struck at this date it is shown that it was customary to regard Tiberius' reign as beginning A.D. 12 or A.U.C. 765."

Here are pictures of coins with Tiberius on them. Notice the dates. One is 12-14 AD. One is Tiberius STRUCK UNDER AUGUSTUS. One is 8-10 AD. (Browsing Roman Imperial Coins of Tiberius, http://www.wildwinds.com/coins/ric/tiberius/i.html) After the coins are some quotes I found on the Internet.

Tiberius, as Caesar, Semis. 12-14 AD. Lugdunum mint. TI CAESAR AVGVST F IMPERAT VII, laureate head right / ROM ET AVG below front elevation of the Altar of Lugdunum. Cohen 38.

Tiberius AE As, struck under Augustus. TI CAESAR AVGVST F IMPERAT V, bare head left / ROM ET AVG, front elevation of the Altar of Lugdunum.

Tiberius, under Augustus, Sestertius. 8-10 AD, Lyons mint. TI CAESAR AVGVSTI F IMPERATOR V, laureate head right / ROM ET AVG, front elevation of the Altar of Lugdunum, decorated with corona civica, laurels, nude male figures & Victories on columns. Cohen 29.
---
"The Dawn of World Redemption," byErich Sauer, CHAPTER X, THE MESSIANIC PROPHECIES
http://www.worldinvisible.com/library/sauer/dawnredm/dwr3c10.htm "The year 26 is also the fifteenth year of Tiberius(Luke 3:1), for Luke does not there reckon the years of reign from the sole rule of Tiberius (that is, from the death of Augustus, 19th August, A.D. 14), but from his elevation to the joint sovereignty (shortly before the 16th January A.D. 12)."
---
The Date of Christ's Crucifixion - Part 2
"Editor's Note: The following is taken from "The Bible Almanac," Thomas Nelson Publishers, pages 61-64, The Day and Year of Christ's Birth and Crucifixion, by James Packer, Merrill Tenney and William White. http://www.christiancommunitychurch.us/dovenet/hisdate2.htm Josephus indicates that Tiberius became emperor at the death of Augustus in A.D. 14 ("Antiquities" Bk. XVIII, Chap. ii, Sect. 2). His fifteenth year would therefore have been A.D. 28 or 29, depending on whether he used an accession or a non-accession scheme of dating. John and Jesus began their ministry at about the same time. Let us assume that Jesus had a ministry of three and a half years and was about 30 years of age, as Luke 3:23 says, when He began to serve. At once a problem emerges: Josephus' date for Tiberius requires us to place the death of Jesus in about A.D. 31 or 32, and to move His birth date to 3 or 2 B.C., which as we saw is too late.

"However, the problem is not insuperable. We know that Tiberius ruled with Augustus Caesar for two or three years before Augustus died. This means he began his official duties in about A.D. 11 or 12, and on this reckoning the fifteenth year of his rulership came in A.D. 26 or 27. The date of A.D. 26 is probably the best choice for the beginning of John's and Jesus' ministry, because it squares with the 5-6 B.C. birth date of Jesus." Agape

My e-mail to David Parker

Here are some other things I found.

This coin has both Augustus and Tiberius on it. Ancient Imports
http://www.ancientimports.com/cgi-bin/category.pl?id=25

Date: 13-14 AD. Obverse: CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE, bust of Augustusr. Reverse: TI CAESAR AVG F TR POT XV, bust of Tiberius r.
---
From: Amazing Answer to Prayer
http://www.illustratedbible.com/ch10.htm
This coin has Tiberius Caesar on it.

In Luke 3:1-3 it says this baptism happened in the 15th year of Tiberius Caesar while John the Baptist was preaching baptism in the wilderness. There are coins from Antioch in Syria of the date A.U. 765 ( 12 AD) with the head of Tiberius and the inscription, Kaisar Sebatos (Augustus)

...An old document written by Roman senator, Dion Cassius recorded the big events happening in 12 AD

This historian said: "Agustus, because he was growing old, wrote a letter commending Germanicus to the senate and the latter to Tiberius." (Book 56, chapter 26, translation by Herbert Baldwin Foster)
---
The Julio-Claudians
http://www.ancientromancoins.net/julio/julio.html

Tiberius as Caesar (12-14 AD), Lugdunum mint. AE Semis (5.41 gm), Grade: F. TI CAESAR AVGVST F IMPERAT VII. Laureate head right.
ROMETAVG. Front elevation of the Altar of Lugdunum decorated with the corona civica between laurels, these being flanked by nude male figures; to left and right Victories on columns facing one another. RIC I (Augustus) 246; BMCRE 588.
---
Browsing Roman Imperial Coins of Tiberius http://www.wildwinds.com/coins/ric/tiberius/i.html

Tiberius, as Caesar. 10 AD. As. TI CAESAR AVGVST F IMPERAT-[OR V]. bare head right / PONTIFEX TRIBVN POTESTATE XII around large S C.
Agape

Incoming email, from David Parker

Marilyn, re these coins.... What do you make of this statement under one of the coins:Tiberius, as Caesar, Semis. 12-14 AD ?

I am unclear as to why is uses the phrase "Tiberius, as Caesar" etc, and the dates 12-14 AD. Tiberius would not have been considered Caesar then. Do you have an explanation? David

My reply

Yes, Tiberius was appointed Caesar in 10 AD and began to reign over Palestine in 12 AD. He was considered Caesar then.

Tiberius Julis Caesar Augustus (BC 42 - 37 AD) was originally named Tiberius Claudius Nero, after his father Tiberius Claudius Nero. In BC 12, he was compelled to divorce his wife and marry Julia, daughter of Augustus. Besides being Augustus' son-in-law, because his mother, Livia, married Augustus, Tiberius also became Augustus' step son, adopted in 4 AD. Tiberius was sent into Germany. He subjugated Illyricum in 9 AD.

In 10 AD, Tiberius was APPOINTED Co-Rex with Augustus. Being the heir apparent, he was called Caesar from that time on. In 12 AD, Tiberius began to reign over Palestine. Augustus busied himself with other parts of his kingdom. When Augustus died in 14 AD, Tiberius became Sole-Rex.

The Roman senator and historian, Dion Cassius, wrote about the big events that were happening in 12 AD. He said, "Agustus, because he was growing old, wrote a letter commending Germanicus to the senate and the latter (the senate) to Tiberius" (Book 56, chapter 26, translation by Herbert Baldwin Foster).

The sequence is upheld by the coins:
---
Browsing Roman Imperial Coins of Tiberius
http://www.wildwinds.com/coins/ric/tiberius/i.html

1. Tiberius, as Caesar, 8-10 AD:
Ref Tiberius AE Sestertius, RIC 240 [Augustus], Cohen 28, BMC 572 Tiberius, as Caesar, Sestertius. Lugdunum mint. Struck 8-10 AD. TI CAESAR AVGVSTI F IMPERATOR V, bare head of Tiberius left / ROM ET AVG, altar of Lugdunum. RIC I 240 (Augustus); Cohen 28.

2. Tiberius, under Augustus 8-10 AD:
Tiberius, under Augustus, Sestertius. 8-10 AD, Lyons mint. TI CAESAR AVGVSTI F IMPERATOR V, laureate head right / ROM ET AVG, front elevation of the Altar of Lugdunum, decorated with corona civica, laurels, nude male figures & Victories on columns. Cohen 29.

3. Tiberius, as Caesar. 12-14 AD. As. Lugdunum mint. TI CAESAR AVGVST F IMPERAT VII, laureate head right / ROM ET AVG, front elevation of the Altar of Lugdunum, decorated with the corona civica between laurels, nude figures, & Victories.
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The next coin, dated 13,14 AD, proves that Tiberius was Co-Rex with Augustus. It has both Augustus and Tiberius on it.

Ancient Imports
http://www.ancientimports.com/cgi-bin/category.pl?id=25

Date: 13-14 AD. Obverse: CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE, bust of Augustusr. Reverse: TI CAESAR AVG F TR POT XV, bust of Tiberius r.

Agape

His reply

Thanks, Marilyn. Very interesting indeed.

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