Pro and Con 1136

Posted 7-18-04

Incoming email, Re: October 1998 Newsletter

Marilyn...Not sure if this fellow has his facts straight...but thought you would be interested.
Biblical Astronomy, October 1998
Editor - Robert Scott Wadsworth


(Date Correction)

In A Voice Crying in the Heavens, 2nd edition, page 135 it is stated that the North Star "will illuminate the entrance to the Well Shaft" of the Great Pyramid in 1997 and shine on the floor of the Subterranean Passage seven years later in 2004. Both of these dates are incorrect. This will not occur for at least another 600 years.

I first received the information on the incorrect date in June, 1997 from the Watcher Ministries website. At that time the second edition of A Voice Crying in the Heavens was about to go to print and I wanted to get the information in the book since it may have been very pertinent to the year 1997. Not knowing the technical details of the Great Pyramid, I called Pyramidologist Ralph Lyman to confirm if this was so. At that time he assumed that the information was correct, since the dates were originally put forth by a respected acquaintance of his, John Zajac, in his book The Delicate Balance, pg. 160. A few months ago, while Ralph and I were in a telephone conversation, he mentioned to me that the dates were incorrect. We spent about four hours on the phone going over the calculations with our astronomy programs. Since then, we have spent many more hours going over the calculations. The following is a brief outline of our research. I do not believe that John Zajac purposely put out false information, but just miscalculated. I also do not believe that it will be another 600 years before the Lord's Appearing.

The key factors to consider when calculating when the North Star is visible at certain points in the descending passage of the Great Pyramid are: the location of the pyramid (what latitudinal position on Earth), the angle of the descending passage, the size of the outside opening or window of the passage, and the distance from the opening to the point of interest.

The latitudinal location of the Great Pyramid is 290 58' 51" North. The angle of the descending passage is 260 18' 9.7". As calculated from the location of the pyramid, the Celestial North Pole is always 290 58' 51" above the northern horizon from that point. The descending passage is 41.257 inches wide by 47.33 inches high and is pointed almost due north. It is only about 3' or 1/20th of a degree off of due north. The distance from the outside opening of the passage to the entrance of the well shaft is 321 feet. The distance from the outside opening of the passage to the floor of the subterranean passage is 345 feet. For practical purposes we will call the outside opening of the descending passage the window. The further the distance from the window, the less is the outside area of visibility. You can experiment by walking closer to or further away from any window. From the entrance of the well shaft, the area of visibility from the top to the bottom of the window is 42' (30' = 1/20), and the area of visibility from side to side is 37'. From the front of the subterranean floor, the area of visibility from the top to the bottom of the window is 39', and from side to side, 34'.

The angular distance that a star needs to be from the Celestial North Pole to be visible in the window is calculated by subtracting the angle of the descending passage (260 18' 10") from the angle that the Celestial North Pole is above the horizon (290 58' 51") which equals 3 degrees, 40 minutes and 41 seconds. The Celestial North Pole is located at 900 declination north of the Celestial Equator. 900 minus 30 40' 41" equals 860 19' 19" which is the minimum declination above the Celestial Equator that the North Star needs to be in order to be visible in the window of the descending passage as viewed from the front of the subterranean floor of the Great Pyramid. The maximum declination that the star can be and still be visible in the window as viewed from the floor is 860 58' 19". This is because the area of visibility from the bottom to the top of the window as viewed from the subterranean floor is 39'. On the average, the North Star will be visible in the window of the descending passage as seen from the subterranean floor for 114 years from the time it first becomes visible. During that time, the star is only visible in the window for approximately 35 minutes each day. It appears in the window at a different time each day as the days progress through the year. The star is in the window during the night sky for about half a year, and in the day sky for the other half.

The star Thuban in the constellation Draco was visible in the window as seen from the subterranean floor from 3437 BC to 3325 BC. As Thuban moved through the Celestial Grid from the precessional movement of Earth, it again became visible in the window from 2253 BC to 2139 BC. Chart 79 displays Thuban at 2:30 a.m., on September 1, 2139 BC. Note that the information box shows that Thuban was at 860 19' 19" declination at that time, which is the minimum declination required for the star to be visible in the window as viewed from subterranean floor. Also note that the star was 260 above the horizon. It was actually 260 18' 10" above the horizon at that time, but the Dance of the Planets program rounds the altitude to the nearest degree. I set the location in the Dance of the Planets program at the coordinates of the Great Pyramid for all charts in this issue. On April 15, 2253 BC, Thuban was at 860 58' 19", which is the maximum declination from which the star is visible in the window.

Chart 80 displays the star Polaris on November 15, 1452. Polaris was at the minimum declination required to be visible in the window at that time. Polaris reached the maximum declination on October 1, 1568. As Polaris moves through the Celestial Grid from the precessional movement of Earth, it will again become visible from the subterranean floor on March 15, 2637 at which time it will be at the maximum declination from which it is visible in the window from the subterranean passage floor. Polaris will be visible from the entrance of the well shaft 9 years earlier (not 7). Polaris will remain visible in the window for over 116 years until it reaches the minimum required declination which occurs on August 15, 2753. This is displayed on Chart 81.

Chart 82 displays Polaris a 5:00 a.m., on September 5, 1997. Note that the declination is 890 15' 14" which is well above the maximum limit of 860 58' 19". At this date and time, Polaris is approximately 310 above the northern horizon as viewed from the Great Pyramid. As seen above, The North Star will not be seen from the entrance of the well shaft until 2628, and then 9 years later on March 15, 2637, it will be seen from the front floor of the subterranean passage.

My reply

Thanks so much. From what I know about him, I think Bob Wadsworth's information on Thuban and Polaris is reliable. Agape

Incoming email, Re: I think you may have miscalculated your dates.

You said in PC 1133:
Since Jesus was crucified on the Preparation of the Passover, he was crucified on Nisan 13, 3790 (April 6, 30 AD).

I think you will find that April 6, 30 AD was Thursday, Nisan 15th.

This site has a great calendar.
or, just go to Google, and type in AishLuach.

Nisan (and all Hebrew months) start on the first sliver of light after the dark of the new moon.

According to this site, the new moon, for the year 30, in the month of March, was on the 22nd.

Year---New Moon-------First Quarter------Full Moon

30----Mar 22 17:42---Mar 30 22:14----Apr 6 19:38 (rest of chart omitted)

The new moon would have been March 22nd.
March 23 would have been Nisan 1
March 24 would have been Nisan 2
March 25 would have been Nisan 3
March 26 would have been Nisan 4
March 27 would have been Nisan 5
March 28 would have been Nisan 6
March 29 would have been Nisan 7
March 30 would have been Nisan 8
March 31 would have been Nisan 9
April 1 would have been Nisan 10
April 2 would have been Nisan 11
April 3 would have been Nisan 12
April 4 would have been Nisan 13
April 5 would have been Nisan 14
April 6 would have been Nisan 15

Looking forward to hearing from you.

My reply

I downloaded the aish calendar program. It said it put it on the Desktop, but I can't find it.

> >
> > Mar 22 17:42 Mar 30 22:14 Apr 6 19:38

That's correct. The Full Moon was on the night of our Thursday, April 6, at 19:38 hours. At 6 PM (18:00 hours), the Jewish Friday, Nisan 14, the Feast of Passover, began.

Not every calendar program can be trusted, but I think this one at time and date is correct.
It says that April 6, 30 AD was Thursday, and the day of the Full Moon. That fits. Friday, Nisan 14 was Passover. Saturday was Nisan 15, Feast of Unleavened Bread. Sunday was Resurrection Day, Nisan 16, the Feast of Firstfruits.

Nisan 17 would be Monday, the day after the Resurrection. The main feast days were Nisan 14 (Passover), 15 (Unleavened Bread) and 16 (Firstfruits).

Lev. 23:5,6 says, "In the FOURTEENTH day of the first month at even is the LORD's passover. And on the FIFTEENTH day of the same month is the feast of unleavened bread unto the LORD: seven days ye must eat unleavened bread" (Nisan 15-21).

Josephus, a Pharisee priest, said, "But on the SECOND DAY of unleavened bread, which is the SIXTEENTH day of the month, they first partake of the fruits of the earth, for before that day they do not touch them" (Ant. III. X. 5). Nisan 16 is the second day of unleavened bread and the Feast of Firstfruits.

Thursday, the Preparation of the Passover couldn't be on Nisan 17, when Sunday was Nisan 16.

In 30 AD, Nisan 16, Firstfruits, was Sunday, the first day of the week, Resurrection Day, the second day of unleavened bread. Therefore,Passover was Friday, Nisan 14. The first day of unleavened bread was Saturday, Nisan 15. The second day of unleavened bread was Sunday.

Nisan 17 was Monday, the third day of unleavened bread. Calendar conversion programs that don't agree with this are wrong. I think the problem is that while Israel was still in the land, i.e., before 70 AD, the calendar was set by visually sighting the crescent Moon. Converter programs probably go by Hillel's rules of the Jewish Calendar. They came along later.

Here are some of the "Historical Remarks on the Jewish Calendar" in the front of Arthur Spier's book, "The Comprehensive Hebrew Calendar."

"Since the solar year of about 365 days is approximately 11 days longer than 12 lunar months, the Jewish calendar is faced with the problem of balancing the solar with the lunar years.

"In the early times of our history the solution was found by the following practical procedure; The begtinnings of the months were determined by direct observation of the new moon. Then those beginnings of the months (Rosh Hodesh) were sanctified and announced by the Sanhedrin, the Supreme Court in Jerusalem, after witnesses had testified that they had seen the new crescent and after their testimony had been thoroughly examined, confirmed by calculation and duly accepted...

"A special committee of the Sanhedrin, with its president as chairman, had the mandate to regulate and balance the solar with the lunar years. This so-called Calendar Council (Sod Haibbur) calculated the beginnings of the seasons (Tekufoth) on the basis of astronomical figures which had been handed down as a tradition of old. Whenever, after two or three years, the annual excess of 11 days had accumulated to approximately 30 days, a thirteenth month Adar II was inserted before Nisan in order to assure that Nisan and Passover would occur in Spring and not retrogress toward winter. However, the astronomical calculation was not the only basis for intercalation of a thirteenth month. The delay of the actual arrival of spring was another decisive factor. The Talmudic sources report that the Council intercalated a year when the barley in the fields had not yet ripened, when the fruit on the trees had not grown properly, when the winter rains had not stopped, when the roads for Passover pilgrims had not dried up, and when the young pigeons had not become fledged. The Council on intercalation considered the astronomical facts together with the religious requirements of Passover and the natural conditions of the country.

"This method of observation and intercalation was in use throughout the period of the second temple (516 B.C.E. -- 70 C.E.), and about three centuries after its destruction, as long as there was an independent Sanhedrin. In the fourth century, however, when oppression and persecution threatened the continued existence of the Sanhedrin, the patriarch Hillel II took an extraordinary step to preserve the unity of Israel. In order to prevent the Jews scattered all over the surface of the earth from celebrating their New Moons, festivals and holidays at different times, he made public the system of calendar calculation which up to then had been a closely guarded secret. It had been used in the past only to check the observations and testimonies of witnesses, and to determine the beginnings of the spring season."

The mathematical calculations used to check those who sighted the crescent Moon are easy to figure once you have the tables of expressions representing 100 cycles, 90 cycles, 1 cycle, etc. The desired number of cycles are added to the expression considered to be the First New Moon (FNM) of Tishri. By this and a few other rules, such as what day of the week New Year Day can fall on, the NYD of the upcoming year is figured. Then the type of year that fits in between the old NYD and the future NYD is inserted. If it is not a leap year, the length of the year can be 354, 355, or 356 days. Leap years are 384, 385 or 386 days.

According to Jewish calendar rules, Passover can only fall on Sunday, Tuesday, Thursday or Friday. In 30 AD, it fell on Friday. The Crucifixion was on the Preparation of the Passover, i.e., on Thursday, which was April 6.

Yet, Tarek's Universal Converter says,
6 / April / 30 AD Gregorian
8 / April / 30 AD Julian
17 / Nisan / 3790 AM Jewish

The day of the week is wrong. The Crucifixion was on Thursday, Nisan 13. Nisan 17 would be Monday, not Saturday. I can't go by this calendar program, or others like it, for determining first century correlating dates. These conversion calendars are fine for correlating dates in modern times only.

The next one gives the same results as Tarek, but tells us that it may be wrong, because it "does not take into account a correction of ten days that was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII. Since the result is not off by 10 days, there may be something else wrong. Are they both using the same program? I can't go by this calendar converter either.
Hebrew Date Converter

WARNING: Results for year 1752 C.E. and before may not be accurate. Hebcal does not take into account a correction of ten days that was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII known as the Gregorian Reformation. For more information, see Gregorian and Julian Calendars.

Sat, 6 April 0030 = 17th of Nisan, 3790
This calendar converter program has April 6 on Thursday, which is correct, but it has that day as Nisan 15. It should be Nisan 13. Still, it is a step in the right direction.
The NASA Full Moon chart you quoted said that the Full Moon was Apr. 6 19:38. The next Jewish day started at 18:00 hours. That was Friday, Nisan 14, the Feast of Passover. Thursday, April 6 was Nisan 13.
> > April 6 would have been Nisan 15
The phase is about 2 days, making April 6, Nisan 13.
I made a note to myself years ago that "A Vindication of the True Date of the Passion," by William Cuninghame (London: Seeley, Burnside, and Seeley; 1846) p.6, says that Thursday, April 6, 30 AD, was the Paschal Full Moon. I agree with him. As I studied it further, I found out that Africanus, Bengel and Gresswell agreed with him too. Agape


Neither the Gregorian nor the Jewish calendar of today were in use in 30 AD. Instead of the Gregorian, the Julian calendar was used. Instead of the mathematically fixed Jewish calendar of today, their calendar was set by visually sighting the New Crescent Moon. Extrapolating present-day calendars backward results in small errors. However, the results are useful. They get us in the ball park. Then we can refine the output by comparing it with Scripture.

> > http// written by Fred Espenak of Nasa. He uses Gregorian dates on and after 1582 October 15th, which was the first day after the ten days from October 5 to October 14 inclusive, that the Pope abolished. He uses JULIAN DATES before October 5th that year, as mankind did.

That's important. APRIL 6, 30 AD, CRUCIFIXION DAY, IS A JULIAN DATE, which it should be, for the Julian Calendar was in use at that time.

April 6 (19:38) was the only Full Moon in April. It was on the night of Thursday, April 6/7. For the Jews, it was the night of Friday, Nisan 14, Passover, the Feast that started at 6 PM on April 6 and ended at 6 PM on April 7. The diagram at YourSky for Thursday, April 6, 30 AD, shows the Full Moon. Saturn was in Gemini, as it is now.

I consider the following a reliable calendar converter, yet it has the Hebrew date wrong.
Gregorian: Thursday, April 4, 30 AD
Julian: Thursday, April 6, 30 AD
Hebrew: Thursday, Nisan 15, 3790

The Hebrew date for Thursday, April 6, 30 AD, Julian, should be Thursday, Nisan 13, 3790, on the Hebrew calendar.

Thursday, April 6, 30 AD, Julian, was the preparation of the Passover (John 19:14), Crucifixion Day.
Thursday, Nisan 13, 3790, Hebrew, was the preparation of the Passover. The Crucifixion was "Not on the feast day" (Mark 14:1,2). Friday, Nisan 14, was the Feast of Passover. The Crucifixion was not on Nisan 14. Saturday, Nisan 15, was the Feast of Unleavened Bread. The Crucifixion was not on Nisan 15. Sunday, Nisan 16, was the Feast of Firstfruits and the Resurrection. The Crucifixion was not on Nisan 16.

Remember, the Crucifixion was "Not on the feast day" (Mark 14:1,2), and "it was the preparation of the passover" (John 19:14).

Since Friday (Nisan 14, Passover), Saturday (Nisan 15, Unleavened Bread) and Sunday (Nisan 16, Firstfruits) were all feast days, the Crucifixion was on Nisan 13, Thursday, "the preparation of the passover."

Mt. 12:40 says, "as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale's belly; so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth." They were Thursday (day), Friday (night then day), Saturday (night then day), and Sunday (night). Therefore, the Crucifixion was on Thursday (day). That was Nisan 13, the day before Passover, Nisan 14. Lev. 23:5 says, "In the fourteenth day of the first month at even (starts at 6 PM on Nisan 13) is the LORD'S passover."

Below are some interesting things found on Calendar-conversion web sites.

The Biblical Lunar Calendar

To calculate which day Nisan14 is we need to know when the new and full moons are around March 21st for the last 6,000 years....

The Hebrew day is taken as starting at 6pm in Jerusalem. But JERUSALEM IS 2 HOURS AHEAD OF GMT. SO THE HEBREW DAY STARTS AT 4PM GMT. So in the case of 2008, the Hebrew day which starts at 4pm on March 7th has the new moon. But this does not make it the first day of the new lunar month. Because NEW MOONS ARE ONLY VISIBLE AT NIGHT AND ARE NOT GENERALLY VISIBLE TO THE NAKED EYE UNTIL AROUND 18 TO 48 HOURS AFTER THEY OCCUR.

So we need to know how long after a new moon occurs one has to wait in Jerusalem before one can actually see it. The record for a human first seeing a new moon is 15.5 hours after it occurred, but visibility depends upon a lot of factors. However in the middle east, Jerusalem, at a mid northern latitude (31:47 North), and a reasonable altitude (820 metres above sea level or 2700 feet ), at the time near the vernal equinox, is well placed in this regard see:

Obviously, the visibility of the young lunar crescent depends on sky conditions and the location, experience, and preparation of the observer. Generally, low latitude and high altitude observers who know exactly where and when to look will be favored. For observers at mid-northern latitudes, months near the spring equinox are also favored, because the ecliptic makes a relatively steep angle to the western horizon at sunset during these months (tending to make the Moon's altitude greater).

Mind you the first passover was in Egypt! The new moon's visibility in Jerusalem largely depends on the rotational position of the earth. Normally at some place on the earth the new moon will be visible around 18 to 24 hours after it occurs. But it can obviously take the globe up to 24 hours to rotate until Jerusalem reaches this position. This combines with other factors to mean that THE PERIOD BETWEEN OCCURRENCE AND VISIBILITY IN THE ONCE HOLY CITY CAN BE ANYTHING FROM 18 TO 48 HOURS. It is possible to calculate when the moon will first become visible in Jerusalem: Mooncalc 5.2 by Dr. Monzur Ahmed ('Monz') seems to do this fairly well and is very easy to use. It is advertised on the South African Astronomical Observatory site at: and you can download it from:

Definition: A NEW MOON IS DEEMED TO BECOME VISIBLE 30 HOURS AFTER IT OCCURS, and is only visible in Jerusalem between 6pm and 6am local time, unless true observation data or accurate calculated data is available...

Calendar conversion programs do not all agree

Time and Date agrees with the Julian Calendar quoted above from Four Mile Lab. April 6 was Thursday. However, it shows the Gregorian the same as the Julian.

More than you probably want to know about constructing the Jewish Calendar for any year, but interesting to scan.
As exacting as this is, it misses the mark, stating that Passover is Nisan 15, as Jews do today. Lev. 23:5 says that the Passover is Nisan 14.

"Hebrew Calendar Science and Myths"
by Remy Landau

Unless otherwise noted, the term Hebrew Calendar will mean the day to day calendar derived from the traditional ASTRONOMICAL CALCULATIONS of the lunar periods. The astronomical results are usually provided in days and fraction of the day. The Hebrew Calendar is provided only in integral days....

The day for Tishrei 1 may be postponed by up to two days depending on the time calculated for its molad (New Moon).

An Example - Calculating Hebrew Year 5758H (1997/1998)....

The Constant Annual Period

The annual Hebrew calendar period which begins on the first day of the 29-day month of Adar and ends with the 29th day of Heshvan forms a constant period of 265 days.

It is within that period that may be found all of the biblically ordained festivals such as Pesach, Shavuot, Rosh Hashannah, Yom Kippur, Sukkot, and Shemini Atzeret.

The period of time beginning with the first day of Pesach on Nisan 15th up to and including Shemini Atzeret which occurs on the 22nd day of Tishrei is exactly 185 days long....

It is to be noted that the starting day of the constant annual calendar period is fixed by the the first day of Tishrei for the immediately following Hebrew year and not from the day of Rosh Hashannah for the current Hebrew year....

We are accustomed to determining the Hebrew year at Rosh Hashannah by adding the constant 3761. For example, by adding 3761 to Gregorian year value 1996g we get the Hebrew year value 5757H.

Can a parliament of leaders from traditional religions and those with a more New Age flavor save the world from itself?

By Geneive Abdo, July 8, 04

Titan reveals its mysterious surface

Heather Catchpole, 6 July 04

Scientists for the first time have peered through the thick atmosphere of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, to reveal mysterious features and a possible crater....

But scientists so far have seen so (no) sign of the oceans of methane thought to cover the planet-sized moon.

Previous images of Titan from the Voyager missions and Earth-based telescopes showed very bright patches, which scientists guessed could be continents, and dark patches that could be oceans of methane....

The Cassini spacecraft has for the first time made a mineral map of Titan and found WATER ICE and hydrocarbons on its surface. It has also shown a diverse, irregular surface, including a possible crater and linear features that could be evidence of geological activity....

Giant Asteroid Could Hit Earth in 2014

Near Earth Object 2003 QQ47

LONDON, England (Reuters) -- A giant asteroid is heading for Earth and could hit in 2014, U.S. astronomers have warned British space monitors.

But for those fearing Armageddon, don't be alarmed -- the chances of a catastrophic collision are just one in 909,000.

Asteroid "2003 QQ47" will be closely monitored over the next two months. Its potential strike date is March 21, 2014, but astronomers say that any risk of impact is likely to decrease as further data is gathered.

Incoming email, Re: Coffin in Great Pyramid

If you haven't already, please read this story about the finding of the ark of the covenant. When I was reading your Pro-Con about the Great Pyramid's coffin without a lid and particularly about the corner that was missing, I clicked on one of your links listed in your Pro-Con and it mentioned about the other side of the coffin had three holes bored into it. That website said that those three holes were to move the coffin around. I was reminded by those comments of Ron Wyatt's discovery of the ark of the covenant. When he found the ark it was in a stone box with the lid partially slid off.

It is a fascinating article and I think that it gives us more clues as to why the coffin in the Great Pyramid has a corner missing.

This is the website where it talks about the three holes in the coffin

This is Ron Wyatt's story of the stone box containing the ark

My reply

I don't think Ron Wyatt was right about Mt. Sinai being in the Arabian Peninsula instead of the Sinai Peninsula. There wasn't enough time for the Israelites to reach the Gulf of Aqaba before they crossed the Red Sea. As I read the accounts in the Bible through again very carefully, I found out that the Israelites were in the wilderness (midbar, desert) area of the Sinai Peninsula the whole time they journeyed to Mt. Sinai. Nu. 9:5 says, "they kept the passover on the fourteenth day of the first month at even in the wilderness of Sinai." To me, this means that their inland route, like the Way to Shur, was still fairly close to the Mediterranean Sea. Since I don't buy Wyatt's conclusion about where Mt. Sinai was located, I look at the rest of his claims with skepticism.

> > That website said that those three holes were to move the coffin around.

Thanks. That sounds reasonable. I read that the holes were to secure a lid. Maybe there never was a lid. Since the coffin couldn't have been taken in there after the Pyramid was finished, would a lid have been taken out? A lid isn't necessary. The empty coffin tells the story. The tomb is empty, and Jesus ascended to Heaven.

I read that the damage to the empty coffin in the Great Pyramid has been caused by people breaking off chips for souvenirs. Agape

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