Pro and Con 1289
Incoming e-mail, Re: "WOW! James ossuary and Jehoash inscriptions are GENUINE"
Archaeological Evidence was manipulated by Israel Antiquities Authority!
The ossuary inscribed "James, son of Joseph, brother of Jesus" has recently been studied by Professor Wolfgang E. Krumbein, a world-renowned authority. He has reached startling conclusions that will change the debate over this highly controversial artifact. Printed below is a summary of Professor Krumbein's report. click the following link for the full text of the report
As this is being written, Israeli antiquities collector Oded Golan is being tried in criminal court for forging the now-famous James ossuary inscription ("James, son of Joseph, brother of Jesus"). A new report by a leading German scientist, however, may blow the case out of the water.
According to Professor Wolfgang E. Krumbein, of Oldenburg University, Germany, a well-known expert in geology, geochemistry and microbiology, "We can state with certainty that a period of 50-100 years, at least, was necessary for the formation of the specific composition of patina whose traces were identified inside the ossuary inscription."
Krumbein also examined the patina on the ossuary far from the inscription. His conclusion:
"Patina sampled from the surface of the ossuary, far away from the inscription, was found to be identical to the microscopic traces of patina, which I found inside the ossuary inscription and sites sloping from the surface into the inscription grooves (and no indication of any kind was found of any adhesive on this patina). Therefore, we must conclude that the patina formed over the entire ossuary and the remains of patina in the inscription area were formed over the same period of time."
What about the examination and reports by Tel Aviv University Professor Yuval Goren and his colleague Avner Ayalon of the Geological Survey of Israel on behalf of the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA), concluding without doubt that the inscription is a modern forgery?
Professor Krumbein directly addresses their reports:
"The conclusions noted in the reports by Goren, Ayalon and their colleagues, originate from a series of errors, biases, mistaken premises, use of inappropriate methodology, mistaken geochemistry, defective error control, reliance on unconfirmed data, disregard of information (such as the cleaning and preservation actions performed [on the ossuary], and the use of a comparative isotope methodology despite the fact that the [James ossuary] inscription fail[s] to meet the cumulative prerequisite conditions for such tests and comparisons." Each charge is documented in detail in Krumbein's report.
Professor Krumbein is considered one of the world's leading experts on stone chemistry and biology. He has been a visiting professor at numerous universities, including Harvard, and has conducted post-doctorate research at Hebrew University. He is the recipient of two honorary doctorates. He has edited 15 scientific books and has published over 400 articles in scholarly journals. He was recommended to undertake this study by Professor Steven Weiner, the director of the Kimmel Center for Archaeological Science at the Weizmann Institute in Israel, who was asked for a recommendation by Golan's attorney, Lior Bringer.
Under the heading "Disregard of Relevant Information," Krumbein noted that Yuval Goren and Avner Ayalon ignored the fact that some members of the IAA team also observed original patina in the inscription, patina that Krumbein himself observed. As stated in his report, "I found traces of natural patina inside the ossuary inscription in at least three different sites of the inscription (in the first and last sections of the inscription)." He pointedly added (an apparent reference to observations of other members of the IAA team), "Traces of ancient patina were found inside the area of the inscription... not only by us."
Professor Krumbein had available to him the photographs taken of the ossuary at the time the inscription was initially published in BAR, the photographs taken at the Royal Ontario Museum after the ossuary had broken into five pieces during transit from Israel, photographs taken by the IAA after the ossuary was confiscated, and photographs he himself took when he examined the ossuary in 2005. From a comparison of these photographs, Professor Krumbein found that "the ossuary inscription recently was altered and contaminated by the IAA and/or police." Professor Krumbein notes that "Traces of such [original] patina are evident in photographs of several letters taken in 2002."
Krumbein compared pictures taken in 2002 (published in BAR) with photographs subsequently used in presentations by Goren. In the 2002 photographs there is hardly any filling inside the letters, filling that Goren called the "inscription coating" and more sarcastically (implying a forgery) as the James Bond. This, according to Goren was the paste or adhesive (the bond) used by the forgers to cover the evidence of a modern forged engraving. Krumbein reported that later photographs, taken in 2003 by the IAA, do "show the presence of a 'granular' coating [the inscription coating or James Bond]." On Krumbein's examination in 2005, however, he "saw no traces of such granular coating inside these letters, because these had been recently removed by the IAA/police." Krumbein then observes, "This could be taken as a documentation of deliberate manipulation of the inscription patina by the IAA and/or police during the custody period."
The Krumbein report goes on: While the ossuary was in the custody of he IAA "The inscription and surrounding areas was contaminated using silicon-like red material, preventing more comprehensive tests to confirm or disprove previous test results." The red material was apparently used to make a cast of the inscription. The remains of this material are visible in many of the photographs Krumbein took in 2005.
The Krumbein report also accuses the IAA of ignoring exculpatory evidence. In his report for the IAA, Professor Goren states: "The inscription has been engraved or cleaned over its entire length in the modern age." In their scientific publication Goren and his colleagues acknowledge that the inscription was "freshly cleaned." The Krumbein report charges that "The IAA completely ignored these statements and specifically ignored the ramifications of the cleaning," which would account for the presence of the inscription coating.
Goren and Ayalon conducted oxygen isotope tests on the inscription coating (or James Bond), which in their report is the basis for concluding that the inscription is a forgery. The Krumbein report states that "the isotopic tests conducted on the ossuary inscription patina are irrelevant and can provide no indication of the dating of the inscription production, because the item fails to meet the prerequisite conditions, which are necessary if such tests should bear any scientific meaning." The Krumbein report explains at great length why this is so.
Professor Goren also condemned the ossuary inscription because he found microfossils of nanoplankton (coccoliths) in the inscription coating that, in Professor Goren's words, "are abundant in marine-derived sedimentary rocks (such as chalk), but are nonexistent in terrain-derived sediments. This phenomenon is unique to the inscription coating and was never observed in the other patina samples."
Krumbein directly contradicts Professor Goren:
"Contrary to Professor Goren's opinion, marine microfossils, unobservable to the naked eye, are commonly found in the patina on stone artifacts from the Jerusalem region and were found by us on the ossuary also at places far away from the inscription. Not only do they not indicate a forgery, their presence in the patina reinforces the arguments supporting the authenticity of such items...Over 150 years of literature it was established that all kinds of microfossil remains are permanently blown by wind and storm into the atmosphere and deposited on exposed surfaces and even penetrate into caves."
Professor Krumbein concludes:
"The patina covering several of the inscription letters is no less authentic than the patina covering the other parts of the ossuary, which, according to the IAA team, is authentic."
Professor Krumbein also analyzes the Yehoash (or Jehoash) inscription and the ornamentation on a stone oil lamp, both of which have been charged to be forgeries. In these cases, too, Professor Krumbein finds evidence supporting the authenticity of the inscription and the ornamentation.
Also see these files:
Hurray! That's great news. Thanks a million....Agape
"Will Peres be Israel’s next president?
Incoming e-mail, Re: Something to consider
From: DOUGLAS MICHELE HENNEY
The following article is one I recently submitted to the Five Doves site. It reflects my current understanding as I try to fit various prophetic pieces together.
I appreciate how much you have been a positive catalyst over the years for my attempting to keep my hope set upon the return of Jesus. Sincerely, Douglas Henney
My reply to excerpts from his long article
Thanks for your kind words.
We do differ in our view of the end times that are almost upon us. Babylon is to be restored, as I knew it would be. Here is an article about it:
"Lure of Babylon is powerful draw"
"IRAQ, U.N. UNDERTAKE PROJECT TO RESTORE CITY, TRANSFORM IT INTO CENTER FOR CULTURAL TOURISM."
Jeffrey Gettleman / NY Times
As I understand it, you believe that there will be three Raptures at 3.5-year intervals, each of which is the end of one of the three ages of time. I believe that there are two main Raptures, one at the beginning of a 7-year Tribulation, the other at the end of the shortened Tribulation. I think the one Mid-Trib is just for Moses and Elijah. The Pre-Trib Rapture is the first "trump of God" (I Thess. 4:16). The Pre-Wrath Rapture is the "last trump" (I Cor. 15:51).
I can only see two Raptures in Numbers 10:1-4. It says, "the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, Make thee TWO TRUMPETS of silver; of a whole piece shalt thou make them: that thou mayest use them for the calling of the assembly, and for the journeying of the camps. And when they shall blow with them (i.e., both), all the assembly shall assemble themselves to thee at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. And if they blow but with one trumpet, then the princes, which are heads of the thousands of Israel, shall gather themselves unto thee."
I believe that these princes, heads of the thousands of Israel are the 24 elders of Rev. 4:4. Before the Tribulation, the first trump of God will sound, and the 12 patriarchs and the 12 apostles of Israel will be Raptured. John will be among them. When he is caught up in Rev. 4:1, the other 23 elders are also caught up. They are all seated on their thrones in Rev. 4:4. The wise virgins will be caught up with John.
At the end of the shortened Tribulation, both trumpets will sound. As the first trumpet sounds again, the wise virgins will be gathered from one end of Heaven to the other to attend the general assembly in Heaven (Heb. 12:23). When the last trump sounds, the Tribulation saints will be gathered from the Earth to the general assembly in Heaven. Mark 13:27 says, "And then shall he send his angels, and shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from the uttermost part of the EARTH to the uttermost part of HEAVEN." On the agenda at the assembly that day will be the Coronation of Christ., the Marriage of the Lamb, and the Judgment Seat of Christ.
I believe that there are three 2000-year ages, the Age of the Gentiles, the Age of the Jews, and the Age of the Church, and that the ends of all three ages will run concurrently during the 7-year Tribulation.
The Bible is 100% true in the original editions. However, there are a few things hard to understand from the translations. In those cases, it helps to look up the meaning of the original Hebrew or Greek words. To convince me that what you say is true, you need to give me the scriptures that back up your position. I'll try to show you the reasons for my beliefs.
The Bible does not say that there are three ages, but we can be sure that there is more than one age.
Eph 2:7 says, "That in the ages to come he might shew the exceeding riches of his grace in his kindness toward us through Christ Jesus."
Eph 3:5 says, "Which in other ages was not made known unto the sons of men, as it is now revealed unto his holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit".
Eph 3:21 Unto him be glory in the church by Christ Jesus throughout all ages, world without end. Amen.
Col 1:26 says, "Even the mystery which hath been hid from ages and from generations, but now is made manifest to his saints".
I Cor. 2:7 says, "But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, even the hidden wisdom, which God ordained (proorisen, predetermined) before the world (pro ton aionon, before the ages).
Titus 1:2 speaks of "eternal life, which God, that cannot lie, promised before the world began" (pro chronon aionion, before the ages of time).
2Ti 1:9 Who hath saved us, and called us with an holy calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began" (pro chronon aionion, before the ages of time).
The reason I called the three ages that of the Gentiles, Jews and the Church is in I Cor. 10:32. It says, "give none offense, neither to the Jews, nor to the Gentiles, nor to the church of God." I think Christ planed the ages around these three groups. 1Cor 10:11 says, "Now all these things happened unto them for ensamples: and they are written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the world (tele ton aionon, ENDS OF THE AGES) are come."
I take it that the time of the last generation will include the "ends of the ages." The end of the Age of the Jews is in Dan. 9:27, but there are "ends of the ages," plural, not just of one age. Therefore, I think the ends of the ages of the Gentiles and the Church will run concurrently with the end of the Age of the Jews, the 70th week of Daniel.
> > This first age of mankind, which included the pre- and post-flood periods, proceeded to the time of the scattering of mankind at Babel, and perhaps even up until Abram. However, this first age was "paused" at the scattering, or at the time of Abram. I suggest that three-and-a-half-years are still pending from this first age. The last, and yet still future, three-and-a-half-years from this mankind/nations age will include God’s fire-like judgment directed at the peoples/nations of the world. The appropriate judgment did not take place after the scattering from the Babel project but was put on hold. These final three-and-a-half-years will take place in the final three-and-a-half-years of what is commonly referred to as the seven year tribulation, which include God’s refining ‘wrath’ judgments.
I think the Day of the Lord that begins the Millennium is the Day of God's Wrath. That is the day Jesus receives his kingdom. The Coronation ceremony will take place at the General Assembly in Heaven (Heb. 12:23). The Pre-Wrath Rapture takes place on that Day of the Lord, in the night or morning. God's Wrath will hit Earth at noon (Zeph. 3:3-5). The Marriage of the Lamb probably will be next on the agenda of that day. Following that, Jesus will be seated as judge at the Judgment Seat of Christ. The saints in Heaven will be receiving their rewards when the Wrath of God hits unbelievers left on Earth.
Rev. 11:17,18 says, "We give thee thanks, O Lord God Almighty, which art, and wast, and art to come (7 months later, Eze. 39:12,13); because thou hast taken to thee thy great power, and hast reigned. And the nations were angry, and thy wrath is come, and the time of the dead, that they should be judged, and that thou shouldest give reward unto thy servants the prophets, and to the saints, and them that fear thy name, small and great; and shouldest destroy them which destroy the earth."
> > I present that the crucifixion of Jesus took place in the middle of the 70th week of Daniel and I believe this idea may be interwoven into and partially revealed in the prophecy of Daniel 9 and specifically verse 27. In this verse the ‘golden thread’ prophecy pointing to Jesus is “interwoven” with the ‘dark thread’ prophecy, so to speak, of Satan’s false christ. The gold thread is: In the midst of the week Jesus is crucified putting an end to sacrifice by His own sacrifice and thus confirming the covenant to Abraham wherein all the peoples of the world would ultimately be blessed. The dark thread is: Satan attempts to have his man fulfill this same scripture but by confirming a (false) covenant, for seven years before the world, and then in the midst of that week violating it by setting up an abomination that causes desolation.
Look at Dan. 9:25-27 again. It says, "Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks (7 x 7 = 49), and threescore and two weeks (62 x 7 = 434; total 483 yrs): the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times. And
after threescore and two weeks (483 yrs - 454 BC + 1 [because there is no zero year] = 30 AD) shall Messiah be cut off (karath, killed, i.e., crucified), but not for himself (for us):" That is the last time Christ is meantioned in this passage.
Continuing, it says, "and the people (Romans) of the prince that shall come (in the future, after 30 AD, i.e., the False Prophet) shall destroy the city and the sanctuary (the Romans did this in 70 AD); and the end thereof (i.e., of the False Prophet's reign) shall be with a flood (when the asteroid of Rev. 8:8 hits the Mediterranean Sea on the Day of God's Wrath), and unto the end of the war (Armageddon, after the Second Advent, 7 months after the Day of God's Wrath, Eze. 38:20; 39:12,13) desolations are determined. And he (the Satan-possessed False Prophet) shall (i.e., in the future) confirm (strengthen) the covenant (i.e., the peace treaty) with many (including the UN) for one week (70th week of Daniel, i.e., 7 years): and in the midst of the week (Mid-Trib) he (the Satan-possessed False Prophet) shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease (because at Mid-Trib, he sits in the temple shewing himself that he is God, II Thess. 2:4), and for the overspreading of abominations (idols) he shall make it (the temple) desolate, even until the consummation (i.e., end of the shortened Tribulation), and that determined (including the asteroid impacts of Rev. 8:8,10) shall be poured upon the desolate (desolator)."
> > The last three-and-a-half-years of Daniel’s 70th week were also put on hold for the Israel/Judah nation, and will take place in the first three-and-a-half-years of the tribulation. The judgments sanctioned by God during this future time for Israel/Judah are DIFFERENT than what will take place in the final three and a half years directed against the nations.
The believers in Israel should flee Jerusalem when the False Prophet desecrates the temple. Mt. 24:15,16 says, "When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place, (whoso readeth, let him understand:) Then let them which be in Judaea flee into the mountains". Rev. 12:6 says, "And the woman (Israel) fled into the wilderness, where she hath a place (Petra) prepared of God, that they should feed her there a thousand two hundred and threescore days" (i.e., the last half of the 7-year Tribulation).
The "consummation" (kalah, full utter end) in Dan. 9:27 places the last half of the 70th week of Daniel at the end, not the beginning, of the 7 years.
> > This third age, the church-body age, is also not completed as of yet and will also have a final three-and-a-half-year block of time. This three-and-a-half-year period will take place completely before the above referenced seven year tribulation which only contains the last three-and-a-half-years of the Israel/Judah age and the last three-and-a-half-years of the mankind/nations age.
The foolish virgins will live in the Tribulation. Rev. 7:9,14 tells us of their Rapture, when they come out of great tribulation. The 144,000 are added to the Bride group at the Pre-Wrath Rapture) I think all three 7-year ends of the ages will end in a photofinish on the Day of God's Wrath.
Of the 144,000, Rev 14:3-5 says, "they sung as it were a new song before the throne, and before the four beasts, and the elders: and no man could learn that song but the hundred and forty and four thousand, which were redeemed from the earth. These are they which were not defiled with women; for they are virgins. These are they which follow the Lamb whithersoever he goeth. These were redeemed from among men, being the firstfruits unto God and to the Lamb. And in their mouth was found no guile: for they are without fault before the throne of God."
> > I think that each age has one final Sabbath of years, yet for some reason God has set things up in such a way that this last week of years gets split in half for each of the three ages, with the latter halves all falling in a row in the last days. This “week of time” structure is something God established from the creation week. It is one of His ways by which we can know some of the timing of what God will do within the created dimension. At the end of each age, after the final “week of time” for that age, will be a “new-creation eighth day” where God will “show up” with a revelation of Himself that is beyond anything that we can wrap our minds around, including an rapture event for each of the three ages.
One final Sabbath of years would be 7 years.
> > After the church group rapture, some/many of the nation of Israel/Judah will be left behind to be refined for the last half of Daniel’s 70th week, or the first three and a half years of the tribulation. During this judgment season Israel’s heart idols will also be destroyed. However, the two prophets and the increasing number of witnesses from each tribe will be present to help them to receive their Messiah, Jesus as Salvation (repenting of the same sin of the nation of Israel during the former leaderships’ rebellion). After this time, at the final three and a half years of Daniel’s 70th week, some will be taken at the Israel/Judah rapture along with the two witnesses and the 144,000. Perhaps this Israel group will only be of the 144,000, I do not know. This rapture will take place at the midpoint of the tribulation.
Since the Pre-Trib Rapture (first 'trump of God', I Thess. 4:16) and the Pre-Wrath Rapture ('last trump' of God, I Cor. 15:51) include both Old and New Testament saints, the only resurrection and ascension Mid-Trib is that of Enoch and Elijah, God's two witnesses (Rev. 11:1-12). At the "last trump," along with the 144,000, there will be "a great multitude, which no man could number, of all nations, and kindreds, and people, and tongues, stood before the throne, and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes, and palms in their hands" (Rev. 7:9)..
Dan 12:1,2 says, "And at that time (i.e., when the False Prophet comes to his end, Dan. 11:45) shall Michael stand up, the great prince which standeth for the children of thy people: and there shall be A TIME OF TROUBLE (i.e., the Day of God's Wrath), such as never was (i.e., it wasn't Mid-Trib) since there was a nation even to that same time: and at that time (the Day of God's Wrath) thy people (i.e., the 144,000) shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book. And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt."
> > After the Israel group rapture, some/many of the rest of mankind/nations will be left behind to be refined for the last three-and-a-half-years of the nations-age, the last three-and-a-half-years of the tribulation. During this judgment season, the nations’ heart idols will be destroyed. After this final fire judgment from God, some of those of the nations will have humbled themselves before the Creator God (repenting of the same sin of the nations during the tower of Babel rebellion) and this time manifesting this by serving those remaining behind of Israel/Judah, some of whom have been hidden at Petra. This servant group will be esteemed by Jesus as those of the sheep group. Those that have continued to harden their hearts through all of the revelations of God and the subsequent rapture opportunities will in the end be judged to be of the goats by Jesus.
After the Rapture of the 144,000 and a great multitude out of all nations, the Wrath of God will fall on all unbelievers left on Earth (Rev. 8). The saints are all in Heaven receiving their rewards when the Wrath of God hits Earth. Rev. 11:17,18 says, "We give thee thanks, O Lord God Almighty, which art (on the Day of the Lord), and wast (at the First Advent), and art to come (at the Second Advent, 7 months later; Eze. 39:12,13); because thou hast taken to thee thy great power, and hast REIGNED. And the nations were angry, and THY WRATH IS COME, and the time of the dead, that they should be judged, and that thou shouldest give REWARD unto thy servants the prophets, and to the saints, and them that fear thy name, small and great; AND SHOULDEST DESTROY THEM WHICH DESTROY THE EARTH."
> > In a nutshell, I think there are three rapture-like events, all of which are prior to Jesus’ returning to earth at the end of what is commonly understood to be the tribulation. This can only be accepted if one comprehends the place of God’s three ages and how he closes each by placing the three-and-a-half-year ends in a row just before Christ sets foot on the earth.
I still think there are two Raptures, Pre-Trib and Pre-Wrath.
> > I know the above is a lot to digest. I am sure some of you recognize prior contributions. I think of Miriam Howard, MJ Agee, Tim McHyde, CAPS, Bob Schlenker, Daniel Matson, David Lowe, and JR Church, as being just a few of those from whom I have gleaned over the years. There are many others. God wisdom for creating the interdependence of the members of His body is profound.
> > MJ Agree helped me years ago, in her writings, to step back and be open to the idea that instead of a single rapture event, that there were possibly two. In my opinion, to assist a person to sincerely reevaluate their premises is the most valuable gift a teacher can give. It is a very difficult thing to do on your own, and I think impossible without the Spirit’s gentle wisdom, grace and mercy.
> > I hope in presenting the above, folks will step back yet again and at least consider, especially in light of the closing of the three ages, how there may actually be three rapture events prior to Jesus actual arrival.
At the time of the Pre-Trib Rapture, there is one body. It includes both Jews and Gentiles. 1Co 12:13 says, "For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free; and have been all made to drink into one Spirit."
> > At this time I am wondering if this Pentecost will be when the bride group receives the fullness of the Spirit’s manifestation, while next year’s barley first fruits feast might be when they are raptured, yet in the second month as CAPS mentions.
I hope for the coming Ascension Day (May 24) or Pentecost (June 2,3, 2006).
> > Lastly, it is one thing for me to have many ideas about a bride group; it is another simply to live now before God with a waiting bride’s heart. My prayer is that God, in grace and mercy, may sanction that we be accounted worthy to escape one day soon with the groom and to stand before Jesus, looking without shame into His eyes.
> > If any of the above is a benefit to you, I would like to hear from you at email@example.com. Sincerely, Douglas Henney
Pro and Con 1290 Or Return
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