Pro and Con 1293

Posted 6-28-06


Here is a picture of the wailing wall taken after a section of the western wall fell. Both the adjoining wall that marks where Wilson's Arch joined the temple wall and the faces of what I call the Bride and Bridegroom are visible. Maybe the wall fell to show that the Temple was not where the Al Aqsa Mosque is now. It is probably about the width of what is left of the wailing wall. Notice that the faces are in the middle of what is left of the wailing wall.

Western wailing wall


By Marilyn Agee

Concerning the Temple, Tacitus said, "There is an ever-flowing spring tunneled under the hills into collecting pools and cisterns." (Hist 11.12). I wonder if this ever-flowing spring can be located today.

In his "Hidden Secrets of the Temple Mount," Tuvia Sagiv, the man who figured out that the Temple was located south of the Dome of the Rock, wrote, "For the purposes of the Temple rituals the water had to be "living water," that is, fresh flowing water, not water lifted from a cistern" (

That has the ring of truth. Since the Temple was built according to symbolic "patterns" (Heb. 9:23) given to King David by the Lord, we have good reason to believe that it was supplied with copious amounts of "living water." I Chron. 28:11,12,19 says, "David gave to Solomon his son the pattern ...of all that he had by the spirit...All this, said David, the LORD (YHWH) made me understand in writing by his hand upon me, even all the works of this pattern."

Yeshua, our Lord Jesus Christ, is both Yahweh King of Israel and Yahweh of Hosts, the Redeemer. "God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself" (II Cor. 5:19). In the Old Testament, Isaiah 44:6 is very clear. It says, "Thus saith the LORD (YHWH) the King of Israel, AND his REDEEMER the LORD (YHWH) of hosts; I am the first, AND I am the last; and beside me there is no God." The Redeemer, YHWH of hosts, is the fountain that gives us the living water that saves us.

In Jer. 2:13, YHWH of hosts, the Redeemer, said, "my people have committed two evils; THEY HAVE FORSAKEN ME THE FOUNTAIN OF LIVING WATERS, and hewed them out cisterns, broken cisterns, that can hold no water." In John 7:38, Yeshua said, "He that believeth on me, as the scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water."

In John 4:10, Jesus (the Son of David), told the Samaritan woman at the well, "If thou knewest the gift of God, and who it is that saith to thee, Give me to drink; thou wouldest have asked of him, and he would have given thee LIVING WATER."


The number seven is God's number of completion and perfection. In character, the Lord's Temple that Solomon (the son of David) built on the Temple mount, and the one that Herod built, had a copious supply of lively spring water brought in to the mount by aqueducts fed by SEVEN NAMED SPRINGS (AIN ETAM, AIN IALAY, AIN BURAK, AIN FARUJA, AIN AITAM, AIN ROGEL AND AIN GIHON). The first four also fed the three reservoirs called Solomon's Pools, which are about 7 miles away, near Bethlehem. Ain Rogel and Ain Gihon were in the Hinnom Valley.

"We have descriptions of the ritual bath (mikvah) used by the high priest. The mikvah was supplied by flowing ("living") water FROM THE SPRING CALLED EIN EITAM WHICH IS IN THE HILLS OF BETHLEHEM NEAR THE POOLS OF SOLOMON WHICH ARE STILL EXTANT. THE SPRING WAS 23 CUBITS ABOVE THE LEVEL OF THE TEMPLE COURT (Steve Austin, The Extraordinary Middle East Earthquake of 750 BC, Institute of Creation Research, San Diego, 1989). From "The Temple of Solomon," by Lambert Dolphin (

In "Solomon's Stables and the Southern Gates," Tuvia Sagiv said, "Ibn Batuta, the Tangiers traveler who visited the city in 1355, wrote that on three sides of the Temple Mount were many gates, but on the south it had only one which the Imam entered (according to G. Le Strange. Palestine under the Moslems, p. 182). EI-Muqaddasi calls this THE FOUNTAIN GATE (i.e., the double Hulda Gate), SINCE THE WATER BROUGHT TO THE TEMPLE MOUNT FROM THE GIHON AND ROGEL SPRINGS FLOWED THROUGH AT THIS POINT. Nasir i-Khosrau noted that this was the gate leading to Silwan (Siloam)" (

Ernest L. Martin, author of "The Temples that Jerusalem Forgot" (1999), thought that instead of the Temple being built on the Temple Mount, it was built over the Gihon spring south of the Temple mount in the City of David. He emphasized that the Gihon was the only spring within a five-mile radius of Jerusalem.

However, the natural watershed and its springs within a 15-mile radius should be considered. The aqueducts built by Solomon made provision for exchanging water with the Gihon spring on their way to the temple. The lower aqueduct brought water from Solomon's Pools to the city of Jerusalem. The higher aqueduct brought spring water to the Temple.

The names of four of the springs that supplied the Temple with water are found in the article, "WHAT WAS THE SOURCE OF HERODIONíS WATER? ( Re: the edge of the Judean Desert, D. Amit said, "Early investigators observed a large pool at the foot of the hill on which the palace (of Herod) was built. The ...El Hammam Pool...was fed by an aqueduct coming from Wadi Urtas. The ravine descends from the REGIONAL WATERSHED of the mountain plateau approximately 4 km west of Bethlehem.

"Five springs issue from the upper part of the ravine, augmented by much rain water coming from the nearby El-Khader valley and the surrounding hills.... THE WATER OF FOUR OF THE SPRINGS - AIN IALAY, AIN BURAK, AIN FARUJA AND AIN AITAM - WAS COLLECTED IN SOLOMONíS POOLS AND CHANNELED TO JERUSALEM. The fifth spring, Ain Urtas, located 1.25 km east of Solomon's Pools (today within the of Arab village of Urtas) was not included in Jerusalemís water supply system. A notion therefore took root among scholars that Ain Urtas was the water source of Herodion, feeding an aqueduct that led towards that site."


This interesting information is from "The Spring (Fountain) of Siloah...En Shiloach" (The Springs and Pools of Jerusalem) ( "It (the aqueduct) is also the same which was led into the outer court of the holy temple, and supplied it with the water necessary for the then sacrificial service, as said in Pesachim, 64a. The Sea of Solomon...of 1 Kings 7:44, also RECEIVED ITS WATER FROM THIS AQUEDUCT, for which see Yoma, 37a....

"The temple has its front to the east, and its back to the west; its whole floor is covered with marble. At the depth of nearly five-eighths of a mile under ground are found a number of aqueducts, which are constructed with an astounding degree of artistical skill. They are lined with lead, carefully closed up, and covered over with earth to a great depth. These artificial channels and aqueducts run under ground, in various directions, to all parts of the temple. In the floor of the sanctuary, and near the pavement, are constructed many secret openings, which can be opened and shut up at pleasure, and which cannot be observed by any one, without it be the priests and the temple servants. If these orifices be now opened, the water rushes in from all sides, and the marble floor of the sanctuary is washed clean of the blood of the sacrifices, if it be ever so much, and thus cleansed of itself, and in the easiest manner. There can be, moreover, never a want of water in these artificially constructed tubes, as it is conducted hither FROM A LARGE NATURAL SPRING (ETAM), which to a certainty can never dry....

(f.) "13. In order to bring the water to the High Priest's mikveh, located above the Water Gate, and to enable cleansing of the court, we have to lower the level of the Temple Mount by 16-20 m. from the level of the existing court (see Table 11. O:Q) (see Fig. 14)....
(f.) "30.... THE EIN ETAM (THE SPRING OF ETAM) IS 23 CUBITS HIGHER THAN THE AZARA (the priest's court)."


John 19:34 says, "But one of the soldiers with a spear pierced his (Yeshua's) side, and forthwith came there out blood and water."

1John 5:6 says, "THIS IS HE THAT CAME BY WATER AND BLOOD, even Jesus Christ; not by water only, but by water and blood. And it is the Spirit that beareth witness, because the Spirit is truth. Verse 8 says, "AND THERE ARE THREE THAT BEAR WITNESS IN EARTH, THE SPIRIT, AND THE WATER, AND THE BLOOD: AND THESE THREE AGREE IN ONE."

In Matthew 26:28, Yeshua said,, "For this is my blood of the new testament (i.e., the Last Will and Testament, which becomes effective upon the death of the testator), which is shed for many for the remission of sins."

Hebrews 9:22 says, "And almost all things are by the law purged with blood; and WITHOUT SHEDDING OF BLOOD IS NO REMISSION." The blood shed by lambs at the Temple was to show us by type that in due time, the blood of the Lamb of God would bring us remission of sins.


In "Lands of the Bible "(1881), J. W. McGarvey said, "The road from Jerusalem to Bethlehem, distant six miles, follows the central ridge or water-shed of the hill country, and is the line of communication between Jerusalem and all of the southern part of the land of Israel. Starting from the Joppa gate, it descends southward into and across the Valley of Gihon, CROSSING ON THE BRIDGE WHOSE PIERS AND ARCHES SUPPORT THE AQUEDUCT FROM SOLOMON'S POOLS...

"Among the most remarkable remains of antiquity in all Palestine are the three large reservoirs called Solomon's Pools. They are remarkable both for the labor and expense employed in their construction and for their durability. They are situated about two miles southwest of Bethlehem, at the head of a narrow valley called Wady Ur tas, which descends eastward past the Frank Mountain, and thence to the Dead Sea. The uppermost of the three is at the extreme head of the valley...It is 380 feet long from west to east, 229 feet wide at the western end, and 236 at the eastern end. It is dug down into the solid rock, walled with substantial masonry, and cemented. It is 25 feet deep...It has a flight of well-preserved steps six feet wide, descending to the bottom at the southeast corner...

"The second pool is about 50 yards farther down the valley. It is much longer than the uppermost, and on account of the more rapid descent and widening of the valley it is much wider at the lower than at the upper end. Its length is 423 feet, its width at the upper end 160 feet, and at the lower end 250 feet. It is 39 feet deep at the lower end....The entire bottom and sides are cemented...It has two flights of steps, both entering from the corners on the northern side. In the deepest part of the valley just above it there is a small circular... settling-basin for surface-water and for any which might overflow from the pool above. An opening through the wall of the pool near its top receives the overflow from the settling-basin....

"The lowest pool, which is much the largest of all, is about 50 yards below the second, and the perpendicular height of each of the upper two above its lower neighbor is about 20 feet. The lowest is 582 feet long, 148 feet wide at the upper end, and 207 feet at the lower end. It is narrower than either of the others, but much longer. It is also much deeper, being 50 feet deep at the lower end. Its bottom is composed of several layers of the natural rock dropping off like terraces toward the middle, and all well cemented....It also has a settling-basin at its upper end, and a broad flight of steps at its southeast corner....a water-line distinctly traceable on the cement at the level of an overflow-channel near the top of the lower wall shows that it is often full. The other pools have no overflow-channel...

"The aggregate surface of these three pools is about 6ľ acres, and their immense capacity is realized when we observe that if they were thrown into one they would make a sheet of water 6ľ acres in extent, with a depth (taking the average of their greatest depths) of 38 feet"....


"The sources of supply for these reservoirs are almost as interesting as the pools themselves. That for the upper two is a fountain 220 yards northwest of the uppermost pool, and about 50 feet perpendicular up the slope of the ridge which rises in that direction. This fountain is in an underground chamber cut down into the solid rock, then arched over with masonry and covered with earth, so that but for the place of entrance it could not be distinguished from the surrounding surface. When first discovered in modern times its entrance was through an opening like a cistern's mouth, which would be passed unobserved by one walking over the cultivated field in which it lies. It was entered by sliding and climbing down in a very disagreeable manner. When Robinson visited the spot the opening was covered by a stone so heavy that he and his companion were not able to remove it. Recently the earth has been dug away from the front of it and a wall built up, through which a wooden door gives admittance to the flight of stairs that descend to the floor of the chamber. The stairs enter on a level with the arch of the ceiling, and descend 12Ĺ feet to the floor.

the supply fountain

"The above cut represents it as it was before this improvement was made, the opening in the distance towards which the man is climbing being the former entrance. The chamber is 41 feet long from east to west and 11Ĺ feet wide. Its floor and walls are the natural rock, and the arch above rests on the natural surface of this rock. In the middle of the floor is a basin cut down into the rock, 7 feet long, nearly 3 feet wide, and 3 feet 4 inches deep, into which THE WATER IS COLLECTED FROM TWO SPRING HEADS. One of these is in the northwestern corner of the chamber, and its water, instead of flowing to the basin over the floor, flows into it through a circular orifice cut under the floor. The other stream comes in from the north through a similar orifice under the floor, and its spring head is in a smaller chamber at a right angle to the principal one, and 12Ĺ feet long by 10 wide. The ceiling of this smaller chamber is also arched, and there is an opening to the air through its top like the mouth of a cistern. The door leading into it is seen in the left-hand side of the cut.

"About 12 inches from the bottom of the collecting-basin there is an outflow orifice towards the south, through which the water passes as it accumulates, leaving about a foot of water constantly in the basin. This outflow orifice leads into an arched passage, along the floor of which the water flows due south about 30 feet, where the passage turns into the direction of the uppermost pool. This passage, the mouth of which is seen in the right-hand side of our cut, is for a short distance three feet wide and eight or nine feet high; but thence it is narrower and lower. It is a trench cut into the natural rock, and covered with slabs of stone laid across the top, with the earth replaced above them. The water is the coolest that we found in all Palestine, except near the foot of Mount Hermon where the springs are supplied from the melting snow. It was probably collected thus deep under ground in order to protect it from the hot sun, and to keep it pure.

"The water, thus springing from a fountain once concealed, and running down the slope through a hidden channel, makes its appearance near the northwest corner of the upper pool in a well. On a platform of rock, elevated a few feet above the surrounding surface, is a well's mouth, the stone curb of which is worn into scallops four inches deep by the abrasion of ropes used in drawing water. This opening passes through the vaulted ceiling of a chamber below, in the bottom of which the water from the fountain above described is collected in a round well, and stands three feet deep. From the top of the well-curb to the bottom of this shallow well is 27 feet. The chamber is reached by a narrow flight of stairs descending from the platform. On the south side of the platform is a long stone watering-trough for the use of passers-by.

"The water from the fountain-head before descending into this well first enters a small distributing basin only six feet beneath the surface. It is a circular stone basin about three feet in diameter, with an orifice at one side, through which a part of the water flows to the uppermost pool, and another by which the remainder of the water flows into the chamber and well just described. Thence a still deeper underground channel conducts it along the northern side of the uppermost pool to another distributing basin, about six feet under ground, close to the corner of the middle pool. Here the stream is again divided into two, one of which continues down the valley, and the other runs into the adjacent pool. Thus it appears that these two pools are supplied by a constant flow of part of the water from the fountain....

"The third pool receives no water at all from the aqueduct. Its supply is from another aqueduct coming from the south, which starts from W‚dy el Beer (valley of wells), about 3Ĺ miles distant. A hill about 100 feet high rises from the southern side of the lowest pool, and the aqueduct, after winding around the southern slope of this hill, to a point nearly half way up the hill and opposite the middle of the pool, empties into an open stone channel which runs straight down the hillside and empties into the pool over the top of its wall....

"THE AQUEDUCT ALREADY DESCRIBED AS SUPPLYING THE TWO UPPER POOLS IS THE BEGINNING OF SOLOMON'S AQUEDUCT. It conveys water to Bethlehem and Jerusalem, and its construction has been ascribed, like that of the pools, to Solomon. It is a very common mistake of writers and travelers to represent these pools as supplying the aqueduct, and also to represent each upper pool as supplying the one below it. THE POOLS HAVE NO CONNECTION WITH ONE ANOTHER; THE LOWEST HAS NO CONNECTION AT ALL WITH THE AQUEDUCT, AND THE UPPER TWO, INSTEAD OF SUPPLYING THE AQUEDUCT, RECEIVE THEIR SUPPLY FROM IT. The pools were evidently intended for the storage of a vast quantity of water, which might be used to irrigate the fields in the valley below,...

"The aqueduct, after supplying the second pool, continues down the slope of the valley past the third pool, and a short distance below the northeast corner of this latter pool it receives an addition to its current by the ENTRANCE OF ANOTHER AQUEDUCT from the south, which crosses the valley on a low wall. The author traced this latter aqueduct to a small opening in the ground about 200 yards distant, through which he clambered, and FOUND A SMALL ROCK-CUT CHAMBER, WITH AN ARCHED ROOF, INTO WHICH THE STREAM FINDS ITS WAY, AND WHENCE IT FLOWS INTO THE AQUEDUCT. This chamber is 21 feet long, 11Ĺ feet wide, and 9 feet high. The opening by which I gained admittance was made by the falling of a stone from the arch of the ceiling near its northern end. The stream flowing hence is weak, but ERE IT REACHES THE PRINCIPAL AQUEDUCT IT RECEIVES THE ONE WHICH FLOWS FROM UNDER THE THIRD POOL, and the two together make a considerable addition to that in the aqueduct, compensating it for the loss of the water which supplies the two upper pools. The basins in which these streams unite with one another are open to the air, and are examined without difficulty. From the point of their intersection the principal aqueduct may be said to fairly start on its way to Jerusalem. THUS FAR IT HAS DESCENDED BY A STEEP SLOPE NEARLY 100 FEET BELOW ITS FOUNTAIN-HEAD, but in the remainder of its course its fall is barely sufficient to give its water a steady flow.

"It winds around the sides of the hills on a bench cut for it, and this bench is a good roadway as far as Bethlehem. The mode of construction was first, after cutting this bench, to lay down a course of stone slabs for a foundation. On these were laid the earthen pipes to convey the water, their ends fitting into one another and being made water-tight by cement. Then, for the protection of the pipe, it was covered with stones of irregular shape laid in a mass of cement. The pipe is about eight inches in interior diameter. At intervals along the way to Bethlehem there are square openings in the top that serve as drinking-places for passing men and animals, and they can be utilized for...irrigation.... On reaching the southeastern suburb of Bethlehem the aqueduct passes through a kind of cistern, which it keeps supplied with water for public use....The aqueduct lies by the side of the road leading from Jerusalem to Bethlehem at many places; IT CROSSES THE VALLEY OF GIHON, AS FORMERLY REMARKED, ON ARCHES BUILT FOR ITS SUPPORT, and for that of the Bethlehem road which crosses by the side of it; thence it winds around the southern and eastern sides of MOUNT ZION TO THE POINT AT WHICH DAVID STREET CROSSES THE TYROPEON VALLEY TO THE TEMPLE MOUNT; CROSSES THE SAME VALLEY UNDER THAT STREET, AND ENTERS THE TEMPLE MOUNT....In the light of these considerations it seems best to retain the former opinion that the pools are almost certainly the work of Solomon, and that, while it is possible that some one else may have constructed the aqueduct, it is more likely that this also is the work of him who built the temple, and who could not have left it unsupplied with water.

"The preceding conclusion is strengthened by the fact that ANOTHER AQUEDUCT, CALLED THE STONE AQUEDUCT, has been discovered and traced, which answers much better to the description of Pilate's work given by Josephus. A short piece of it has long been observed by travelers a few hundred yards east of Rachel's tomb, and Dr. Barclay discovered other pieces near the convent of Mar Elyas and on the Plain of Rephaim. He ascertained that it is on a level sufficiently high to reach the upper pool of Gihon, and to run water into the moat of the citadel; and he concludes that its water is referred to by Josephus when he speaks of water that was brought into the tower of Hippicus. It was made of cubical stones perforated with a bore six to eight inches in diameter, with a conical point on one fitted into a conical opening in the next, and made water-tight by cement. Lieutenant Conder, in his careful survey of the country, traced out much more of its course and FOUND ITS FOUNTAIN-HEAD. While camped three miles NORTH OF HEBRON, 3300 feet above the level of the sea, he found on another hill north of his camp the head of this aqueduct. It is "THIRTEEN MILES FROM JERUSALEM as the crow flies, and forty-one and a half by the aqueduct, the fall being 365 feet."28 This is doubtless the fountain referred to by Josephus in the quotations above made from him, and it appears that while his 200 furlongs, 25 miles, is about double the distance in an air-line, his 400 furlongs, 50 miles, for the length of the aqueduct itself, is only 8Ĺ miles out of the way" (


There were several aqueducts carrying water from springs into the Temple mount. One entered from the north. One was brought in by the arch supported causeway at Wilson's Arch in the western wall. water from the Gihon spring in the western edge of the Kidron Valley was run into the Temple mount with the water from the Rogel spring on the south side. The main aqueducts go back to first-Temple times.

The Gihon has a strange action. It is a siphon-type karst spring. Karst springs receive drainage water from the surface via sinkholes and sinking streams within their groundwater basins. The Gihon naturally gushes forth in pulses, turning on for 30 or 40 minutes three to six times each day, according to the available ground water. It is thought to be regulated by an underground pool and a natural siphon that only works when the pool water reaches a certain level. However, no one yet today has located the activating mechanism.

The Rogel spring was called the Fuller's spring. Some of its water was used to wash cloth by treading with the feet. Although tiring, that might have been more effective than the dashers in our washing machines today.

The water supplied to the Temple mainly came from springs in the Hebron mountains near Bethlehem. The spring water was channeled to the Temple by a different aqueduct than the water that was brought into the city from Solomon's Pools. The springs supplied water to the pools and the aqueduct that ran to the Temple.

Who built the aqueduct to the Temple, Solomon, Pilate or Herod? I think all three had a hand in it, Solomon built it originally, and Herod modified it to work with the Temple he built. Pilate added an aqueduct to the city's water system.

When Solomon built the first Temple, bringing water to the Temple at that time would have been necessary. I see no way around that. I think he originally built the waterworks that brought water from springs in the Hebron Mountains to the Temple. I think Solomon built the 100 ft. siphon that kept it all working well too. The Lord obviously had a hand in the whole project.

There was no genuine lack of springs around Jerusalem. "In the time of Ezechias there were many springs of running water in the neighbourhood of Jerusalem, and the king stopped them all (II Par., xxxii, 2-5). Josephus relates that when Titus was besieging Jerusalem many springs flowed so abundantly that they sufficed, not only to give drinking water to the Romans but to irrigate the gardens (Bell. Jud., V, iv, 2) (Jerusalem, Before AD 71 (

"Etam...west of Hebron. The Pools of Solomon--are near Etam (Ain Atan)....The pools are "large open cisterns at Etam, at the head of the Wady Urtas, having an average length of 400 feet [120 m.] by 220 in breadth, and 20 to 30 in depth. These pools derive their chief supply of water from a spring called "THE SEALED FOUNTAIN," about 200 yards [180 m.] to the north-west of the upper pool (of Solomon), to which it is conveyed by a large subterranean passage...They (Solomon's three Pools) cover about 7 acres. "They are probably referred to in Ec 2:6 (article title: "II Chronicles 11") (

Eccl. 2:6 tells us why Solomon the wise made the three pools. It wasn't to bring pool water to the Temple. He got that from the sealed fountain. In Eccl. 2:6, Solomon said, "I made me pools of water, to water therewith the wood that bringeth forth trees. There are trees in that area too. His watering system worked.

The sealed fountain that supplied the Temple with living water helps us picture what Song of Solomon 4:12 means. It says, "A garden inclosed is my sister, my spouse; a spring shut up, a fountain sealed."

The Lord's Temple, the original pattern, was supplied with "living water" from a sealed fountain. The "living water" cleansed the floor.

The Bride of Christ is the temple of the Holy Spirit. II Cor, 6:16 says, "YE ARE THE TEMPLE OF THE LIVING GOD; as God hath said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people."

This "temple of the living God" is sealed by receiving living water from "THE FOUNTAIN OF LIVING WATERS," YHWH of hosts, the Redeemer, Yeshua, our Lord Jesus Christ. The real "living waters" cleanse the real "temple of the living God."

Concerning the Temple, Tacitus said, "There is an ever-flowing spring tunneled under the hills into collecting pools and cisterns." (Hist 11.12).

My choice for the ever-flowing spring, the one that, according to Tacitus, tunneled under the hills and was brought into the Temple, is AIN ETAM (Ain Atan), "THE SEALED FOUNTAIN." Located about 200 yards northwest of the upper Pool of Solomon near Etam (meaning the "Eagle's Nest"), it flows through large subterranean passages. It goes through one tunnel, winds along the side of a hill a bit, then enters another tunnel.

As quoted before, "If these orifices be now opened, the water rushes in from all sides, and the marble floor of the sanctuary is washed clean of the blood of the sacrifices, if it be ever so much, and thus cleansed of itself, and in the easiest manner. There can be, moreover, never a want of water in these artificially constructed tubes, as it is conducted hither FROM A LARGE NATURAL SPRING (ETAM), which to a certainty can never dry...THE EIN ETAM IS 23 CUBITS HIGHER THAN THE AZARA (the priest's court)". From: "The Spring (Fountain) of Siloah...En Shiloach" (The Springs and Pools of Jerusalem) (

The Jerusalem Talmud (Yoma' 3 fol 41) says that a conduit ran from Atan to the Temple.

"It is now Ain Atan, at the head of the Wady Urtas, a fountain sending forth a copious supply of pure water." (Matthew G. Easton) (

"In a word, to any one that is conversant in the Talmudic authors, nothing can be more plain than that the aqueduct from the fountain of Etam was into the Temple, and not into the city" (

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Updated 6-28-06