Pro and Con 1391

Posted 2-25-08

THE PRAETORIUM:
FORT ANTONIA OR HEROD'S CASTLE?

It looks like the Bordeau Pilgrim got it right

By Marilyn Agee

Knowing the correct location for the Roman Praetorium (governor's judgment hall, or the whole edifice) will help us be more certain where Jesus was crucified, in the Garden Tomb (north of the Damascus Gate) or in the tomb in the Church of the Holy Sepulcher (which was outside the Gennath/Garden Gate in 30 AD). Some say the Praetorium where Pilate tried Jesus was at Fort Antonia. Others say the Praetorium was at Herod's castle, built against the Western Wall of Jerusalem. On the map below, the red walls were the only ones there in 30 AD. Note the diagonal line that goes through the Damascus Gate (also called Neapolis, Shechem, or Gate of the Column) in the northern red wall.

The Bordeau Pilgrim made his trip to Jerusalem in 333 AD. He wrote: "From thence (i.e., fromthe Pool of Siloam at the southern tip of the City of David) as you go out of the wall of Sion (i.e., the City of David), as you walk towards the gate of Neapolis (i.e., the Damascus Gate), TOWARDS THE RIGHT, BELOW IN THE VALLEY, ARE WALLS, WHERE WAS THE HOUSE OR PRAETORIUM OF PONTIUS PILATE ( Matt 27:11-33). HERE OUR LORD WAS TRIED before His passion. ON THE LEFT HAND IS THE LITTLE HILL OF GOLGOTHA WHERE THE LORD WAS CRUCIFIED (Matt 27:33-37). [594] ABOUT A STONE'S THROW FROM THENCE IS A VAULT (CRYPTA) WHEREIN HIS BODY WAS LAID, and rose again on the third day (Matt 27:57-60; 28:1-10). There, at present, by the command of the Emperor Constantine [pct 22] (iussu Constantini), has been built a basilica, that is to say, a church (dominicum) of wondrous beauty [pcts 23-24]" {i.e., the Church of the Holy Sepulcher}. (http://www.christusrex.org/www1/ofm/pilgr/bord/10Bord07bJerus.html).

Looking at the map, imagine yourself heading north from the Pool of Siloam to the diagonal line that goes to the Damascus Gate. Look to your left and position yourself due east of the dot labeled Jesus Tomb and Golgotha. Now look to your right. I think you will be looking at the exact area where the Praetorium was located, on the northern half of the Temple Mount. It looks like the Bordeau Pilgrim got it right. The Temple occupied roughly the southern half of the Temple Mount, and Fort Antonia occupied the northern half.

Listen as Josephus, a Pharisee priest and eye-witness, describes Fort Antonia. "Now, as to THE TOWER OF ANTONIA, IT WAS SITUATED AT THE CORNER OF TWO CLOISTERS OF THE COURT OF THE TEMPLE; of that on the west and that on the north; IT WAS ERECTED UPON A ROCK (now under the Dome of the Rock) OF FIFTY CUBITS IN HEIGHT, and was on a great precipice; it was the work of king Herod, wherein he demonstrated his natural magnanimity. In the first place, the rock itself was covered over with smooth pieces of stone, from its foundation, both for ornament, and that any one who would either try to get up, or to go down it, might not be able to hold his feet upon it. Next to this, and before you come to the edifice of the tower itself, THERE WAS A WALL THREE CUBITS HIGH (an east-west wall south of the rock dividing the Temple Court from Fort Antonia); but within that wall all the space of the tower of Antonia itself was built upon, to the height of forty cubits.

"THE INWARD PARTS HAD THE LARGENESS AND FORM OF A PALACE," Josephus continued, "it being parted into all kinds of rooms and other conveniences, such as courts, and places for bathing, and broad spaces for camps; insomuch that, by having all conveniences that cities wanted, IT MIGHT SEEM TO BE COMPOSED OF SEVERAL CITIES, BUT BY ITS MAGNIFICENCE, IT SEEMED A PALACE; and as the entire structure resembled that of a tower, it contained also four other distinct towers at its four corners; whereof the others were but fifty cubits high; whereas that which lay upon the south east corner was seventy cubits high, that from thence the whole temple might be viewed; but ON THE CORNER WHERE IT JOINED TO THE TWO CLOISTERS OF THE TEMPLE (i.e., at the northwest corner of the Temple court), IT HAD PASSAGES DOWN TO THEM BOTH, THROUGH WHICH THE GUARD (FOR THERE ALWAYS LAY IN THIS TOWER A ROMAN LEGION) WENT SEVERAL WAYS AMONG THE CLOISTERS, WITH THEIR ARMS, ON THE JEWISH FESTIVALS, in order to watch the people, that they might not there attempt to make any innovations; for THE TEMPLE WAS A FORTRESS THAT GUARDED THE CITY, AS WAS THE TOWER OF ANTONIA A GUARD TO THE TEMPLE; AND IN THAT TOWER WERE THE GUARDS OF THOSE THREE."

A PECULIAR FORTRESS, HEROD'S PALACE, WAS OUTSIDE THE NW CORNER OF THE TEMPLE MOUNT

"THERE WAS ALSO A PECULIAR FORTRESS," Josephus continued, "BELONGING TO THE UPPER CITY, WHICH WAS HEROD'S PALACE; but for the hill BEZETHA (in the north), IT WAS DIVIDED FROM THE TOWER OF ANTONIA, as we have already told you; and as that hill on which the tower of Antonia stood, was the highest of these three, so did it adjoin to the new city (Bezetha), and WAS THE ONLY PLACE THAT HINDERED THE SIGHT OF THE TEMPLE ON THE NORTH." (Wars. V. V. 8).

The remains of Herod's palace can be seen sketched in the map above and in the modern photo of the Temple Mount below.

Pontius Pilate and his wife probably stayed in Fort Antonia when he came from Caesarea, the seat of his government, to keep order in Jerusalem during the pilgrimage feasts. The prime responsibility of the governor was military, but he was the judicial authority too. It was early when Jesus was taken to Pilate, and he was in Fort Antonia.

The Roman military tribunal convened in Fort Antonia. The Jew's supreme court, the Sanhedrin, convened in the Chamber of Hewn Stone at the Temple. The day-to-day administration of Judaea was left to the High Priest and the other 70 members of the Sanhedrin.

In those days, the rock that is now under the Dome of the Rock was in Fort Antonia. The DIVIDING "WALL THREE CUBITS HIGH" ran east and west just south of the rock, splitting the area of the Temple Mount into two rectangles. The Temple court itself was a square--1 stadia on each side. All the Temple Mount north of that wall belonged to Fort Antonia.

I am convinced that the foundation of the dividing wall was found by two archaeologists at the end of last August. That wall ran east and west about 33 ft. south of the eastern stairs that descend from the Dome of the Rock platform.

"Some man-worked stones have been found in the trench, as well as REMNANTS OF A WALL that according to all our estimations, are from a structure in one of the outer courtyards in the Holy Temple." (Remains of Second Temple Found? Aug. 30, 2007: http://blog.bibleplaces.com/2007/08/remains-of-second-temple-found.html).

The elevation of the pavement in Fort Antonia was higher than the pavement of the Temple court. The northern and western cloisters of the Temple met at the stairs that went up into Fort Antonia. Later, Paul stood on these stairs to talk to the people after he was arrested. Acts 21:35,40 says, "But when he came on THE STAIRS, it happened he was borne by the soldiers because of the violence of the crowd....And he allowing him, standing on THE STAIRS, Paul signaled with his hand to the people. And much silence taking place, he spoke in the Hebrew dialect..."

DO WE HAVE MORE PROOF?

The account of the Bordeaux Pilgrim is good proof that Golgotha is at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre east of the Temple, but do we have any other proof that the Praetorium, judgment hall, was at Fort Antonia on the northern half of the Temple Mount? Yes. This will come clear as we follow Jesus' footsteps after being taken prisoner in the Garden of Gethsemane on the Mt. of Olives on the preparation day of the Passover.

ONE WEEK BEFORE THE CRUCIFIXION

The Sanhedrin met every Thursday. One week before the Thursday Crucifixion, the 71 members of the Sanhedrin decided to kill Jesus. John 11:47-53 explains, "Then the chief priests and the Pharisees assembled a SANHEDRIN, and said, What are we doing, for this man does many miraculous signs? If we let Him alone this way, all will believe into Him, and the Romans will come and will take away from us both the place and the nation. But a certain one of them, Caiaphas being high priest of that year, said to them, You know nothing, nor consider that it is profitable for us that one man die for the people, and not all the nation to perish. But he did not say this from himself, but being high priest that year, HE PROPHESIED that Jesus was about to die on behalf of the nation and not only on behalf of the nation, but that He also might gather into one the children of God who had been scattered. Then FROM THAT DAY, THEY TOOK COUNSEL THAT THEY MIGHT KILL HIM." Luke 22:2 says, "And the chief priests and the scribes sought how to destroy Him; for they feared the people.

Contrary to what some claim, the four gospels agree with each other. They are God-breathed. It could not be otherwise unless something was lost in translation. All four have different details that we have to put together to understand the whole picture of the trials Jesus was subjected to prior to the Crucifixion. I'll list all the pertinent verses so you can see that they agree. I'll use the LITV, because it uses the correct terms Sanhedrin and Praetorium. Keep in mind that for every Hebrew date, there were FIRST 12 hours of night, then 12 hours of day. If we think in terms of our days, we can skip a whole day in our thinking.

Annas, the previous high priest, was a very influensial man. He could still meet with the Sanhedrin and was referred to as a high priest even though his son-in-law, Caiaphus, was the reigning high priest in 30 AD. Since Caiaphus shared power with Annas, it seems that Annas was like a vice president who could preside over the Sanhedrin if Caiaphas was not there.

The location of the homes of Annas and Caiaphus are now marked by churches. The Holy Archangels Church and Convent mark the location of the house of the previous high priest, Annas. The Armenian Holy Savior Monastery preserves the location of the house of Caiaphas, the current high priest. Both were in the southwestern part of the city.

THE SANHEDRIN COULD ONLY MEET OFFICIALLY IN THE DAYTIME ON A DAY THAT WAS NOT A FEAST DAY AT THE CHAMBER OF HEWN STONE AT THE TEMPLE

"It is known that the Sanhedrin which was claimed to have tried and convicted Jesus, DOES NOT MEET TO TRY CRIMINAL CASES AT NIGHT. According to Jewish law, such cases COULD ONLY BE TRIED AND COMPLETED DURING DAYLIGHT HOURS. NOR DID THE SANHEDRIN SIT OUTSIDE THE TEMPLE PRECINCTS....NOR DID THE SANHEDRIN MEET ON A FESTIVAL DAY" (http://www.seeking-god.co.uk/id59.htm).

Therefore, the Crucifixion was not on Friday, the Feast of Passover. The Sanhedrin met every Thursday, and Jesus was crucified on Thursday, the preparation of the Passover. That fits perfectly.

THE SANHEDRIN WAS THE SUPREME COURT. There weref 71 members. They were priests and racially pure individuals. The high priest presided.

"Just as in modern courts of law, THE COUNCIL HAS A SPECIAL MEETING PLACE CALLED THE GAZITH (CHAMBER OF HEWN STONE), WHICH IS PART OF THE TEMPLE. THEY DO NOT MEET ANYWHERE ELSE. ITS SESSIONS START AT 9AM IN THE MORNING AND CLOSE AT 4PM IN THE EVENING.... "THE SANHEDRIN IS NEVER CONVENED ON SABBATHS, RELIGIOUS HOLIDAYS AND ESPECIALLY THE PASSOVER...This is clearly stated by the Misnah (Sanhedrin IV:1) and Maimonides (Hilkot Sanhedrin XI:2): "TRAILS (TRIALS) INVOLVING CAPITAL PUNISHMENT MAY NOT BE HELD ON THE EVE OF THE SABBATH OR (ON) A FESTIVAL. The Sanhedrin also DOES NOT HOLD ANY MEETING AT NIGHT. (Craveri, Life of Jesus: p380 Maccoby, Revolution in Judea: p202).

This shows that the Crucifixion was not on Friday, Nisan 14, the Passover; Saturday, Nisan 15, the Feast of Unleavened Bread and the Sabbath; or on Sunday, Nisan 16, the Feast of Firstfruits. The Crucifixion was on Thursday, Nisan 13, the preparation of the Passover. It was in 30 AD.

The year 30 AD was marked. The Jewish Talmud in Yoma 39b: “Forty years before the Temple was destroyed the gates of the Hekel [Holy Place] opened by themselves, until Rabbi Yohanan B. Zakkai rebuked them [the gates] saying, Hekel, Hekel, why alarmist thou us? We know that thou art destined to be destroyed”. Also “Forty years before the destruction of the Temple, the Sanhedrin was BANISHED (from its Chamber of Hewn Stones) and sat in the trading station" (another place on the Temple Mount) (Shabbat 15a).

The Courtyard (135 square cubits) had four special chambers in the corners. One was the Chamber of Hewn Stones. After the Crucifixion, the Sanhedrin had to give up the chamber in the northern section of the court, possibly because of damage by the earthquake. They had convened in style.

"In the western part of chamber, where an opening lead to the Chail, the Great Sanhedrin convened. Its members sat in a semi-circle. In the center sat the head of the Sanhedrin." (http://www.templeinstitute.org/illustrated/hewn_stone_description.htm). Before 70 AD, the Sanhedrin had to move again. According to Josephus, those quarters were in a building called the Xystus west of the Temple (Wars. V.IV.2).

Middoth 5:3-4 notes that "There were six chambers in the Temple Court, three to the north and three to the south. Those to the north were the Salt Chamber, the Parwah Chamber and the Rinsing Chamber...Those to the south were the Wood Chamber, the Golah Chamber and the Chamber of Hewn Stone."

"Along the walls of the inner temple were placed chambers for various purposes connected with the temple services. At the north end of the court of the women stood the treasury; AT ITS SOUTH END THE GAZITH, OR CHAMBER OF HEWN STONE, IN WHICH THE SANHEDRIN SAT" (http://scriptures.lds.org/en/bd/t/13).

ON THURSDAY NIGHT (OUR WED. NIGHT): JESUS WAS ARRESTED AND TAKEN TO THE MANSION OF ANNAS; THE SCRIPTURES TELL THE STORY

John 18:13,15: "they led Him away FIRST TO ANNAS, for he was the father-in-law of CAIAPHAS, WHO WAS HIGH PRIEST OF THAT YEAR (30 AD)....Simon Peter and another disciple followed Jesus".

Luke 22:54: "And laying hold of Him (Jesus), they led Him away and led Him into the HOUSE of the high priest (ANNAS). And Peter followed at a distance."

Luke 22:60 And Peter said, Man, I do not know what you say. And immediately, while he yet spoke, THE COCK CROWED.

Luke 22:63-65: "And the men who were holding Jesus mocked Him, beating Him. And blindfolding Him, they were striking His face and questioning Him, saying, Prophesy, who is the one stinging You? And blaspheming, many other things they said to Him."

THE 71 MEMBERS OF THE SANHEDRIN (COUNTING ANNAS AS HIGH PRIEST) GATHERED AT ANNAS HOUSE AND QUESTIONED JESUS

Mark 14:53-55: "And they led Jesus away to the high priest (Annas). And all the chief priests and the elders and the scribes came together to him. And Peter followed Him from a distance, to the inside of the courtyard of the high priest. And he was sitting with the under-officers, also warming himself toward the light. And the chief priests and the whole sanhedrin (71, including Annas) sought testimony against Jesus, to put Him to death. And they found none."

John 18:19: "Then THE HIGH PRIEST (ANNAS) QUESTIONED JESUS about His disciples and about His doctrine."

Mt. 26:59: "And THE CHIEF PRIESTS AND THE WHOLE SANHEDRIN (i.e., 71 members, counting Annas) SOUGHT TESTIMONY AGAINST JESUS, to put Him to death. And they found none."

Mt. 26:69: "And Peter sat outside in the courtyard."

Mark 14:60-68: "And standing in the middle, THE HIGH PRIEST (ANNAS) QUESTIONED JESUS, saying, Do you not answer? Nothing? What do these testify against you? But He was silent and answered nothing. AGAIN THE HIGH PRIEST (ANNAS) QUESTIONED HIM, and said to Him, Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed? And Jesus said, I AM! And you will see the Son of Man sitting off the right hand of power, and coming with the clouds of the heaven. (Psa. 110:1; Dan. 7:13) And tearing his garments, the high priest (Annas) said, Why do we still have need of witnesses? You heard the blasphemy. What does it seem to you? And THEY ALL ADJUDGED HIM LIABLE, EVEN OF DEATH. And some began to spit at Him, and to cover His face, and to beat Him with a fist, and to say to Him, Prophesy! And the UNDER-OFFICERS struck Him with slaps. And PETER BEING IN THE COURT below, one of the high priest's (Annas') female slaves comes. And seeing Peter warming himself, looking at him, she said, And you were with Jesus the Nazarene. But he denied, saying, I do not know nor understand what you say. And he went out into the forecourt. And A COCK CROWED."

Luke 22:59,60,63,64: "And ABOUT AN HOUR INTERVENING, a certain other one boldly charged, saying, Truly this one (Peter) also was with Him (Jesus), for he also is a Galilean. And Peter said, Man, I do not know what you say. And immediately, while he yet spoke, THE COCK CROWED....And the men who were holding Jesus mocked Him, beating Him. And blindfolding Him, they were striking His face and QUESTIONING HIM, saying, Prophesy, who is the one stinging You?"

NEAR DAYBREAK, ANNAS SENT THEM ALL TO CAIAPHAS AT THE TEMPLE FOR THE OFFICIAL MEETING OF THE SANHEDRIN IN THE CHAMBER OF HEWN STONE, CAIAPHAS PRESIDING INSTEAD OF ANNAS

John 18:24: "Then having bound Him, ANNAS SENT HIM FORTH TO CAIAPHAS THE HIGH PRIEST."

Luke 22:66-71: "And WHEN DAY CAME, THE BODY OF ELDERS OF THE PEOPLE, THE CHIEF PRIESTS AND SCRIBES, WERE GATHERED. AND THEY LED HIM AWAY INTO THEIR SANHEDRIN, saying, If you are the Christ, tell us. And He said to them, If I tell you, you will in no way believe." And also if I ask, in no way will you answer Me, or let Me go. From now on the Son of Man will be sitting at the right of the power of God. Psa. 110:1 And they all said, Then are you the Son of God? And He said to them, You say it, because I AM! And they said, Why do we yet have need of witness? For we ourselves heard it from His mouth."

Mt. 26:57-59: "And those who had seized Jesus led Him away TO CAIAPHAS THE HIGH PRIEST, WHERE THE SCRIBES AND THE ELDERS WERE ASSEMBLED (71 members, counting Caiaphas). And Peter followed Him from a distance, even TO THE COURT OF THE HIGH PRIEST (Caiaphas). And going inside, he sat with the under-officers to see the end. And the chief priests and the elders and THE WHOLE SANHEDRIN (71 members) looked for false testimony against Jesus, so that they might put Him to death".

Inside the Chamber of Hewn Stone, one side was sacred. The other side was common. The Sanhedrin sat on the common side, so Peter could go in and listen to the proceedings with the "under-officers."

AFTER MAKING THEIR DECISION TO KILL HIM OFFICIAL, JESUS WAS HANDED OVER TO PILATE IN THE PRAETORIUM, BUT THE JEWS DID NOT GO IN

Mark 15:1: "And immediately IN THE MORNING, the chief priests with the elders and scribes and ALL THE SANHEDRIN HAVING MADE A COUNCIL, having bound Jesus, they led Him away and DELIVERED HIM TO PILATE" (i.e., to the Preatorium, Fort Antonia).

Mt. 27:1,2: "And EARLY MORNING occurring, ALL THE CHIEF PRIESTS AND THE ELDERS OF THE PEOPLE TOOK COUNSEL TOGETHER AGAINST JESUS, SO AS TO PUT HIM TO DEATH (now the sentence was official). And binding Him, they led Him away and DELIVERED HIM TO PONTIUS PILATE the governor."

John 18:28,29: "THEN THEY LED JESUS FROM CAIAPHAS (at the meeting of the Sanhedrin on the lower half of the Temple Mount) INTO THE PRAETORIUM (FORT ANTONIA, on the upper half of the Temple Mount), and it was early. And they (the members of the Sanhedrin) DID NOT ENTER INTO THE PRAETORIUM that they might not be defiled, but that they might eat the Passover."

Luke 23:1,2: "all the multitude of them LED HIM BEFORE PILATE. And they began to accuse Him, saying, We found this One perverting the nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, saying Himself to be a king, Christ."

PILATE WENT OUT TO THE TEMPLE COURT TO TALK TO THE JEWS

John 18:29-31: "PILATE WENT OUT TO THEM and said, What accusation do you bring against this man?" They (the Jews) answered and said to him (Pilate), If this One were not an evildoer, then we would not have delivered Him to you. Then Pilate said to them, You take Him and judge Him according to your own Law. Then the Jews said to him, It is not lawful for us to put anyone to death".

THEN PILATE SAT ON THE JUDGMENT SEAT IN THE PRAETORIUM AND QUESTIONED JESUS WITHIN THE HEARING OF THE JEWS ON THE TEMPLE MOUNT

Mt. 27:11,12,19 "And JESUS STOOD BEFORE THE GOVERNOR (PILATE). AND THE GOVERNOR QUESTIONED HIM, saying, Are You the King of the Jews? And Jesus said to him, You say it (i.e., yes). And when He was accused by the chief priests and the elders, He answered nothing....But AS HE (PILATE) WAS SITTING ON THE JUDGMENT SEAT (i.e., in the Preatorium), his wife (Claudia Procula) sent to him, saying, Let nothing be to you and that just one. For I have suffered many things today by a dream because of Him."

Luke 23:3-6: "And PILATE QUESTIONED HIM, saying, Are you the king of the Jews? And answering, him, He said, You say it. And Pilate said to the chief priests and the crowds, I find nothing blameable in this man. But they insisted, saying, He stirs up the people, teaching throughout all Judea, beginning from Galilee to here. And HEARING GALILEE, PILATE ASKED IF THE MAN IS A GALILEAN."

FINDING OUT THAT JESUS WAS FROM GALILEE, PILATE SENT JESUS TO HEROD IN THE ADJOINING CASTLE

Luke 23:7-10: "And knowing that He is from Herod's jurisdiction, HE SENT HIM UP TO HEROD, he also being in Jerusalem in these days. And seeing Jesus, Herod greatly rejoiced, for he was wishing to see Him for a long time, because of hearing many things about Him. And he hoped to see some miraculous sign being brought about by Him. And HE QUESTIONED HIM in many words. But He answered him not a thing. And the chief priests and the scribes stood fiercely accusing Him." (They would have had to go outside the Temple Mount and around to the door of Herod's castle.)

HEROD SENT JESUS BACK TO PILATE IN THE PRAETORIUM

Luke 23:11: "And having humiliated Him with his soldiery, and mocking Him by putting around Him luxurious clothing, HEROD SENT HIM BACK TO PILATE."

The Jews would have had to go back into the Temple court.

Luk 23:13-16: "And HAVING CALLED TOGETHER THE CHIEF PRIESTS AND THE RULERS AND THE PEOPLE, Pilate said to them, You brought this Man to me as perverting the people. And, behold, examining Him before you, I found nothing blameable in this Man regarding that which you charge against Him. But NEITHER DID HEROD, FOR I SENT YOU UP TO HIM; and, behold, nothing worthy of death is done by Him. Therefore chastising Him, I will release Him."

PILATE RETURNED TO THE PRAETORIUM, CALLED JESUS BEFORE HIM AGAIN, AND QUESTIONED HIM

John 18:33-37: "Then PILATE AGAIN WENT INTO THE PRAETORIUM AND CALLED JESUS, and said to Him, Are You the King of the Jews? Jesus answered him, Do you say this from yourself, or did others tell you about Me? Pilate answered, Not, am I a Jew? Your nation, even the chief priests, delivered You up to me! What did You do? Jesus answered, My kingdom is not of this world. If My kingdom were of this world, My servants would have fought that I might not be delivered up to the Jews. But now My kingdom is not from here. Then Pilate said to Him, Are You really a king? Jesus answered, You say that I am a king. For this purpose I have been born, and for this I have come into the world, that I might witness to the Truth. Everyone being of the Truth hears My voice."

PILATE WENT OUT TO TALK TO THE JEWS

John 18:38-40; 19:1-3: "Pilate said to Him, What is truth? And saying this, HE AGAIN WENT OUT TO THE JEWS and said to them, I do not find even one crime in Him! But there is a common custom to you that I should release one prisoner to you at the Passover. Then you decide: should I release the King of the Jews to you? Then all cried out again, saying, Not this One, but Barabbas! But Barabbas was a plunderer.

PILATE TOOK JESUS INTO THE PRAETORIUM AGAIN

John 19:1-3: "THEN PILATE TOOK JESUS AND FLOGGED HIM. And having plaited a wreath out of thorns, the soldiers put it on His head. And they threw a purple mantle around Him, and said, Hail, King of the Jews! And they gave Him blows with the palm."

PILATE RETURNED TO THE TEMPLE COURT BRINGING JESUS WITH HIM

John 19:4-8: "THEN PILATE WENT OUTSIDE AGAIN and said to them, Behold, I BRING HIM OUT TO YOU that you may know that I do not find even one crime in Him! THEN JESUS CAME OUTSIDE, wearing the thorny wreath and the purple mantle. And he said to them, Behold, the Man! Then when the chief priests and the under-officers saw Him, they cried out, saying, Crucify! Crucify! Pilate said to them, You take Him and crucify Him, for I do not find one crime in Him! Then the Jews answered him, We have a law, and according to our Law He ought to die because He made Himself Son of God! Then when Pilate heard this word, he was more afraid."

PILATE TOOK JESUS INTO THE PRAETORIUM AGAIN TO TALK TO HIM

John 19:9-12: "And HE ENTERED INTO THE PRAETORIUM AGAIN and said to Jesus, From where are You? But Jesus did not give him an answer. So Pilate said to Him, Do You not speak to me? Do You not know that I have authority to crucify You, and I have authority to release You? Jesus answered, You would have no authority against Me, not any, if it were not given to you from above. Because of this, the one delivering Me to you has a greater sin. From this, Pilate sought to release Him. But the Jews cried out, saying, If you release this One, you are not a friend of Caesar. Everyone making himself a king speaks against Caesar."

PILATE LED JESUS OUT INTO THE TEMPLE COURT AND SAT ON THE JUDGMENT SEAT, WHICH WAS PLACED ON A MOSAIC ON THE PAVEMENT

John 19:13-15: "Then hearing this word, Pilate led Jesus out. And HE SAT DOWN ON THE JUDGMENT SEAT, AT A PLACE CALLED THE PAVEMENT (lithostrotos, A MOSAIC), BUT IN HEBREW, GABBATHA. And IT WAS THE PREPARATION OF THE PASSOVER (THURSDAY), and about the sixth hour (9 AM, Roman time). And he said to the Jews, Behold, your King! But they cried out, Away, Away! Crucify Him! Pilate said to them, Shall I crucify your King? The chief priests answered, We have no king except Caesar."

PILATE DELIVERED JESUS UP TO BE CRUCIFIED, TOOK HIM BACK INTO THE PRAETORIUM, THEN SENT HIM TO GOLGOTHA

Matt.27:21-27: "The governor answered and said to them, "Which of the two do you want me to release to you?" They said,"Barabbas!"Pilate said to them, "What then shall I do with Jesus who is called Christ?" They all said to him, "Let Him be crucified!" Then the governor said, "Why, what evil has He done?" But they cried out all the more, saying, "Let Him be crucified!"When Pilate saw that he could not prevail at all, but rather that a tumult was rising, he took water and WASHED HIS HANDS before the multitude, saying, "I am innocent of the blood of this just Person. You see to it." And all the people answered and said, "His blood be on us and on our children."Then he released Barabbas to them. But having flogged Jesus, HE DELIVERED HIM UP THAT HE MIGHT BE CRUCIFIED.THEN TAKING JESUS INTO THE PRAETORIUM, the soldiers of the governor gathered all the cohort against Him."

Mt. 27:31-37,54: "And when they had mocked Him, they stripped off His cloak, and they put His garments on Him and LED HIM AWAY TO CRUCIFY HIM. And going out, they found a man, a Cyrenean, named Simon. They compelled this one, that he bear His cross. And coming to a place called Golgotha, which is called, Place of a Skull, they gave Him vinegar mingled with gall to drink. And having tasted, He would not drink. And HAVING CRUCIFIED HIM, they divided His garments, casting a lot, that might be fulfilled that spoken by the prophet, "They divided My garments to themselves, and they cast a lot over My clothing." Psa. 22:18 And sitting down, they guarded Him there. And they put up over His head His charge, it having been written: THIS IS JESUS, THE KING OF THE JEWS....But the centurion and those with him guarding Jesus, seeing the EARTHQUAKE and the things taking place, they feared exceedingly, saying, TRULY THIS ONE WAS SON OF GOD."

John 19:16-19: "Therefore, then, HE DELIVERED HIM UP TO THEM (THE SOLDIERS), THAT HE MIGHT BE CRUCIFIED. And they took Jesus and led Him away. And He went out bearing His cross, to the place called Of a Skull (which is called in Hebrew, Golgotha), where they crucified Him, and two others". , and two others with Him, on this side and on that side, and Jesus in the middle. And Pilate also wrote a title and put it on the cross. And having been written, it was: JESUS THE NAZARENE, THE KING OF THE JEWS."

Mark 15:15,16: "And having decided to do the easiest to the crowd, Pilate released Barabbas to them. And having flogged Him, HE DELIVERED UP JESUS, THAT HE MIGHT BE CRUCIFIED. And THE SOLDIERS LED HIM AWAY INSIDE THE COURT, WHICH IS THE PRAETORIUM. And they called together all the cohort."

Mark 15:20-22,24-26: "And when they had mocked Him, they took the purple off Him, and put His own garments on Him. And THEY LED HIM OUT, THAT THEY MIGHT CRUCIFY HIM. And they forced one passing by, Simon, a Cyrenian, coming from a field, the father of Alexander and Rufus, that he might carry His cross. And they brought Him to GOLGOTHA PLACE, And having crucified Him, they divided His garments And it was the third hour (the 3rd hour of the day, i.e., 9 AM, Jewish time), and THEY CRUCIFIED HIM. And the inscription of His charge was written over Him, THE KING OF THE JEWS."

Luke 23:22-26: "And a third time he said to them, For what evil did this One do? I found no cause of death in Him. Therefore, chastising Him, I will release Him. But with loud voices they insisted, ASKING FOR HIM TO BE CRUCIFIED. AND THEIR VOICES, AND THAT OF THE CHIEF PRIESTS, PREVAILED. And Pilate adjudged their request to be done. And he released to them the one thrown into prison due to revolt and murder, whom they asked. But HE DELIVERED JESUS TO THEIR WILL. And as they led Him away, having laid hold on a certain Simon, a Cyrenian, coming from a field, they put the cross on him, to bear it behind Jesus."

Luke 23:33,38: "And when they came on the place being called Skull, THEY CRUCIFIED HIM"....And also an inscription was written over Him, in Greek and Latin and Hebrew letters: THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS."

Luk 23:44-47: "And it was about the sixth hour, and darkness came over all the land until the ninth hour. And the sun was darkened, and the veil of the Holy Place was torn in the middle. And crying with a loud voice, Jesus said, FATHER, "INTO YOUR HANDS I COMMIT MY SPIRIT." And seeing the thing happening, the centurion glorified God, saying, Truly, this Man was righteous."

THE CRUCIFIXION WAS IN A GARDEN NEAR THE CITY, AND THEY WENT OUTSIDE THE WALL THROUGH THE GENNATH/GARDEN GATE

John 19:20: "Therefore, many of the Jews read this title, because THE PLACE WHERE JESUS WAS CRUCIFIED WAS NEAR THE CITY."

Joh 19:41,42: "And THERE WAS A GARDEN IN THE PLACE WHERE HE WAS CRUCIFIED, and a new tomb in the garden, in which no one yet ever had been placed. There, then, because of the Preparation of the Jews (i.e., THURSDAY, the day before Passover on Friday), because the tomb was near, they put Jesus."

Going out through the Garden Gate and being near the city is all the more reason to think the Crucifixion and burial was at the places marked by the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

Heb 13:12 says, "in order that He might sanctify the people by His own blood, JESUS SUFFERED OUTSIDE THE GATE." Which Gate?

THE GENNATH GATE

The Gennath Gate, meaning of the garden, was near the garden of Joseph of Arimathea, where he had prepared his tomb outside the city wall. The enclosed space is now the Christian Quarter. Joseph's tomb was where Jesus Christ was buried and ressurected after the Crucifixion.

Josephus described three walls of Jerusalem. The first started at the western cloister of the Temple. Concerning the second, he said, “The Second Wall took its beginning from that gate which they called 'Gennath," which belonged to the first wall." The second wall encompassed the northern quarter of the city, and reached as far as the Tower Antonia (Wars. V. IV. 2).

The gsrden of Joseph of Arimathea (probably a rose garden for one was somewhere outside the wals) was outside the Gennath Gate until the third perimeter wall was built by Agrippa I from 41 to 44 AD).

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