I believe there is a discrepancy in the crucifixion date. Passover always occurs on Nisan-15, which means the crucifixion must have been on Preparation Day Nisan-14. For the date math to be correct Nisan-15 must also have been a Thursday. If buried by 6pm Nisan-14 (start of Nisan-15 by Jewish time), adding three nights & three days arrives at 6pm Nisan-17 (start of Sunday, Nisan-18). The calendar in 2002 followed this same sequence.
I have had difficulty finding a good (accurate) calendar and found various Jewish calendar programs don't agree. The one I like best and believe to be accurate is by Alan Corre' (best way to find it is internet search for "perpetual Jewish calendar" and it should be at the top. This calendar program shows Nisan-15 fell on Thursday in years 24, 27, 30AD then 36AD. 30AD is in agreement with the year you calculated.
I am looking to obtain a good (accurate) calendar program that I can personally use/modify to start at your New Moon time 0 AH and clock it forward to present for verification. (Alan Corre's only goes back to 3760 BC, but is a good verification source for that time period.) Regards
> > Passover always occurs on Nisan-15
Lev 23:5,6 says, "In the fourteenth day of the first month at even is the LORD'S passover. And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the feast of unleavened bread."
This "even" of the 14th is the same as 6 PM on Nisan 13, when the 14 begins. How can we be sure?
Lev 23:32 shows how the feasts should be observed, from the 1st even to the next even. Speaking of the Day of Atonement, Tishri 10, it says, "It shall be unto you a sabbath of rest, and ye shall afflict your souls: in the ninth day of the month at even, from even unto even, shall ye celebrate your sabbath." In other words, the feast days start at 6 PM of the previous day, as all their days do. There are 12 hours of night, then 12 hours of day for each date on their calendar.
I know that Israel has confused this and calls the Feast of Unleavened Bread (Nisan 15) the Passover (which is really Nisan 14), but that doesn't make it right. Each feast date is to be kept 24 hours, 12 of night and 12 of day, from the beginning even to the ending even. The misleading sidestep may be because Yeshua/Jesus is our Passover, and they don't want to believe it. 1Co 5:7 says, "Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Christ OUR PASSOVER is sacrificed for us."
> > the crucifixion must have been on Preparation Day Nisan-14.
It was on the Preparation Day (Nisan 13) of the Passover (Nisan 14). Joh 19:14 says, "IT WAS THE PREPARATION OF THE PASSOVER, and about the sixth hour: and he saith unto the Jews, Behold your King!" The food had to be prepared on the previous day, because all the feasts were Sabbaths (Lev. 23:32).
> > For the date math to be correct Nisan-15 must also have been a Thursday. If buried by 6pm Nisan-14 (start of Nisan-15 by Jewish time), adding three nights & three days arrives at 6pm Nisan-17 (start of Sunday, Nisan-18). The calendar in 2002 followed this same sequence.
Nisan 13 was on Thursday in 30 AD. The 3 days and nights were Thursday (day), Friday (night then day), Saturday (night then day), and Sunday (night). Sunday was the 16th. In 1998, Nisan 13 was on Thursday, as in 30 AD.
> > If buried by 6pm Nisan-14 (start of Nisan-15 by Jewish time)
He was buried near 6 PM on Friday, Nisan 14, but that was the beginning of Passover Day, not at the end of it. People can lose a whole day in their thinking if they don't graph it out. Our minds are so used to day then night that it is hard to think of it as being 12 hours of night then 12 hours of day. If we think that the Crucifixion was on Thursday and the burial was on Friday, Nisan 14, but at the end, when it becomes Nisan 15, we skip one whole day. Nisan 14 has 24 hours, not zero hours.
I don't think any of the Jewish calendar programs could be expected to go back farther than 3760, when the Jewish Civil Calendar started. I don't think the one you found is accurate in 30 AD. I tried to find another, with no luck. Long ago, I graphed the years by hand in a spiral notebook with multiple vertical lines on the pages. Now, I think it would be a lot easier using a computer spread sheet. Agape
However, Jer 8:11 says, "For they have healed the hurt of the daughter of my people slightly, saying, Peace, peace; when there is no peace." We are certainly seeing this kind of thing in our days. Every time anything is done to try to bring peace, Arafat sends in his troops, because he does not want peace. He wants to keep on killing Jews so much that he has sacrificed the economy of his people to his obsession. Well, one of these days not too far in the future, he will find out that it's not smart to fight against God's people.
Do you remember what scripture you were reading? Do you know what "This is the catalyst" referred to? Did whatever it was lead up to the Oslo Accords in 1993? They were ratified in Israel on Tishri 1, 5754. Ten years later would be Tishri 1, 5764, our Sept. 27, 2003.
I would appreciate it if you put in an appropriate Subject. I almost threw this away thinking it might be a virus. It came in with your e-mail address in both the From and Subject columns. It is risky opening things I can't identify. Agape
Whoever wrote this article delved into history and came up with his idea of who the seven kings of Rev. 17 are. He started out with Egypt. I disagreed right from the start, and don't believe he has figured out who the "eighth" is, either. The Mystery Religion of Babylon started at the Tower of Babel. I think Babel is the first king.
> > WHO ARE THE SEVEN KINGS OF PROPHETIC HISTORY?
1st KING: EGYPT
2nd KING: ASSYRIA
3rd KING: BABYLON
4th KING: MEDIA-PERSIA
5th KING: GRECIA-MACEDONIA
6th KING: ROME
7th KING: CALIPH OF ISLAM
> > And what about the prophetic eighth king of Revelation Seventeen?
> > He is a lord who will sit on a throne above the empires of the Kings of the North and the King of the South. His throne will soon be created
> > He is the beast from the east....
My greatest step toward understanding "The Revelation of Jesus Christ" was when I finally realized that the last book of the Bible was written as if Jesus stood on the pinnacle of the Pre-Trib Rapture and looked both backward and forward to show us things that follow the Rapture (Rev. 4:1). The Rapture is "at hand" in both the first and last chapters (1:3; 22:10). Jesus signs off with "Surely I come quickly." He comes quickly at the Rapture, not at the Second Advent. At that time, every eye will see him (1:7).
Since the Rapture is now "at hand," we are in the best spot to look both backward and forward with Christ as he tells us "things which must be hereafter" the Rapture (4:1).
In the different chapters, we have to first discern the setting to understand them correctly. The 7 seals, 7 trumpets and 7 vials help us see the main sequence of events. These 7s are organized like circle clocks, where 7 circles are fitted inside a larger circle, with the 7th circle in the center. The 7 trumpets come out of the 7th seal, the center circle. The 7 vials come out of the inner 7th trumpet circle.
As the Tribulation is sandwiched in between the Age of the Church and the millennial Day of the Lord, there are parenthetic sections between the 6th and 7th seals, between the 6th and 7th trumpets, and between the 6th and 7th vials. There are other sections that are parenthetic too. There are clues, match marks, in each parenthetic section to show us where to place them. The setting of Chapter 13 is when the Tribulation begins. Chapter 17 is when the 1st Rapture has just taken place.
One clue. Verse 14 says, "they that ARE WITH HIM (the Lamb, Christ) ARE called, and chosen, and faithful." If the saints are with Christ, the Rapture has taken place.
Another clue. There "ARE ten kings, which have received NO KINGDOM AS YET." Back in chapter 13, the setting is the beginning of the Tribulation. There, all 10 kings are crowned, but nothing is said about their kingdoms. In Rev. 17:12, they "receive power as kings one hour with the beast." Since the first beast of Rev. 13:2-10 is the Tribulation Pope, the 10 kings may help him reign over the political empire.
Rev. 17:8 tells us who the "eighth" that "is of the seven and goeth into perdition" of v. 11 is. Verse 8 says, "The beast that thou sawest (the great red dragon, v. 3) was (in Judas Iscariot), and is not (in man at the Rapture); and shall ascend out of the bottomless pit (Mid-Trib, after being "cast out [of Heaven] INTO THE EARTH," 12:9), and go into perdition: and they that dwell on the earth shall wonder, whose names were not written in the book of life from the foundation of the world, when they behold the beast that was (in Judas), and is not (in man at the Rapture), and yet is (exists)."
Verse 7 says, "I will tell thee the mystery of the woman (Babylon the great, mother of harlots), and of the beast (great red dragon) that carrieth her, which hath the seven heads and ten horns."
At the time of the Rapture, "there are seven kings: five are fallen, and one is, and the other is not yet come; and when he cometh, he must continue a short space (v. 10)."
Ever since the Mystery Religion of Babylon started at Babel, every emperor has been called Pontifex Maximus, the High Priest over the Mystery Religion of Babylon. Knowing this makes identifying the 7 kings easier. We can follow the trail of those called Pontifex Maximus.
Five heads of the great red dragon are fallen:
1. Babel - Nimrod (Pontifex Maximus) (Babylon I)
2. Babylon - Nebuchadnezzar (Pontifex Maximus) (Babylon II)
3. Media-Persia - Darius (Pontifex Maximus)
4. Greece - Alexander (Pontifex Maximus)
5. Imperial Rome - the Caesars (Pontifex Maximus)
At the Rapture, one is:
6. Ecclesiastic Rome - the Pope (Pontifex Maximus) (the Beast of 20:10)
The other has not yet come:
7. False Prophet (Pontifex Maximus) (Pope of Babylon III) possessed by the Serpent, Satan, the tail of the great red dragon
Isa 9:15 says, "The ancient and honourable (the Pope), he is the head (6th head of the great red dragon); and the prophet that teacheth lies, he is the tail" (7th head, plus the tail of the great red dragon, Satan himself, will be in him).
8. Satan, at first in the False Prophet, later operates on his own after the False Prophet is deposed on the Day of God's Wrath
> > Why Iraq is Not Great Babylon
> > Neither Baghdad nor ancient Babylon can be the Great Babylon of the end times. This is because these cities have none of the prophetic attributes that are required of the “city” of the end-times. Iraq does not dominate the world’s shipping routes. Neither are its merchants or politicians the leading businessmen and governors of the world....
> > The nations of the world have over 25,000 large cargo ships. If Iraq is destined to dominate the merchant seamen of the world, as Great Babylon does, then a sizable number of these large cargo ships should be registered to, or owned by, Iraq. Iraq has none.
To me, Babylon in Iraq is the Babylon of Rev. 18. Speaking of the literal Babylon in "Chaldea" (Jer. 50:10) on the Day of God's Wrath, Jer. 50:13-15 says, "Because of THE WRATH OF THE LORD it shall not be inhabited, but it shall be wholly desolate: every one that goeth by Babylon shall be astonished, and hiss at all her plagues. PUT YOURSELVES IN ARRAY AGAINST BABYLON ROUND ABOUT: all ye that bend the bow, shoot at her, spare no arrows: for she hath sinned against the LORD. Shout against her round about: she hath given her hand: her foundations are fallen, her walls are thrown down: for it is THE VENGEANCE OF THE LORD: take vengeance upon her; as she hath done, do unto her." Rev. 18:6 echoes, "Reward her even as she rewarded you." The Babylon of Jeremiah is the same Babylon that Nebuchadnezzar ruled from. So is the Babylon of Rev. 18.
> > Iraq does not dominate the world’s shipping routes.
She doesn't need to. Rev. 18:19 says, "they cast dust on their heads, and cried, weeping and wailing, saying, Alas, alas, that great city, wherein were made rich ALL that had ships in the sea (ships from any nation) by reason of her costliness! for in one hour is she made desolate." The ships brought materials in for rebuilding Babylon as the headquarters of the United Nations.
The World Trade Twin Towers are already gone. It makes me wonder if something will happen to the other Twin Towers, or if the world government will just decide to move to Iraq to have room to build a glorious capitol city of the world. What started in Babel will be finished in Babylon.
The World Church will move there. Zech. 5:10,11 says, "Then said I to the angel that talked with me, Whither do these bear the ephah (largest wheat measure, i.e., world church)? And he said unto me, To build it an house in the land of Shinar: and it shall be established, and set there upon her own base" (Babel, Gen. 11:2).
The harlot world church is seated upon the great red dragon in "THE WILDERNESS" (Rev. 17:3). New York is no wilderness. Babylon is a desert wilderness. No wonder Mt. 24:26 says, "Wherefore if they shall say unto you, Behold, he (the False Prophet) is in the desert (Babylon); go not forth: behold, he is in the secret chambers; believe it not." Agape
The difference of 11 1/4 days between 12 lunar months and one solar year accumulates in three years to more than a month. If no adjustments are made, a summer month like Av or Elul could shift to the winter. Because the Jewish holidays are closely related to the seasons (for example, the Torah commands to celebrate Pesach in the spring), an adjustment to the calendar must be made every few years. Every two or three years one extra month is added to a year. Such a year is called a leap year and it has two months of Adar. Here are the months in a leap year: 1. Tishrei 30 days
2. Cheshvan 29/30 days
3. Kislev 29/30 days
4. Tevet 29 days
5. Shvat 30 days
6. Adar 1 30 days
7. Adar 2 29 days
8. Nisan 30 days
9. Iyyar 29 days
10. Sivan 30 days
11. Tamuz 29 days
12. Av 30 days
13. Elul 29 days
Holidays that occur in the month of Adar (such as Purim) are celebrated in Adar 2 in a leap year. The same rule is applied to birthdays, anniversaries and other personal events. The following 19 year cycle determines when a year is a leap year:
In addition to the leap year cycle, the length of each year is slightly adjusted to meet a number of constraints call Dechiot. These small adjustments are made by selecting the length of the two months of Cheshvan and Kislev to be 29 or 30 days. There are four possible combinations, but only three are actually used: year kind Cheshvan Kislev length of regular year
("incomplete") 29 days 29 days 353
("in order") 29 days 30 days 354
---- 30 days 29 days ----
("complete") 30 days 30 days 355
The four constraints (Dechiot) that determine the exact year length have to do with the exact timing of the holidays in relation to the phase of the moon and with relations to the day of the week. Dechia 1 - Molad Zaken The moon goes in orbit around the Earth. Every month, there is one instance in which the moon is exactly between the Earth and the sun and the Earth faces the dark side of the moon. This instance is called Molad ("birth" of a new moon) and it marks the beginning of a new month. The Molad of the first month of the year, Tishrei, marks the Jewish New Year or Rosh HaShana. Since the Earth is facing the dark side of the moon, the moon becomes visible later that day or the next day. In a year when the Molad of Tishrei occurs after 12:00 noon, Rosh HaShana is postponed until the next day because the moon would not become visible until the next day. This is done by adding one day to the previous year. Dechia 2 - Sunday, Wednsday, Friday If the Molad of Tishrei falls on Sunday, Wednesday or Friday, Rosh HaShana is postponed by one day to Monday, Thursday or Saturday, respectively. The reason is that if Rosh HaShana is on Wednesday or Friday, then Yom Kippur would occur on Friday or Sunday. That would make Yom Kippur adjacent to Shabbat (Saturday) and there would be two consecutive days in which it is forbidden to do any kind of work including the preparation of food. If Rosh HaShana is on Sunday, Hoshana Raba would fall on Saturday and that would prevent the custom of 7 Hakafot. Dechia 3 - Molad of Regular Year on Tuesday If the Molad of Tishrei of a regular year with 12 months occurs on Tuesday morning, Rosh HaShana would occur on Tuesday. However, this would cause a problem with Rosh HaShana of the following year.
To see why, remember that the length of a regular year can be 353, 354 or 355 days. If Rosh HaShana occurs on Tuesday, we can determine the day of Rosh HaShana of the following year by adding (days-in-year modulu 7) days to Tueday (number modulu 7 is the remainder resulting from dividing the number by 7). year kind days in year modulu 7 next Rosh HaShana
("incomplete") 353 3 Tuesday + 3 = Friday
("in order") 354 4 Tuesday + 4 = Saturday
("complete") 355 5 Tuesday + 5 = Sunday We can see from this table that if this year has 353 or 355 days, the next Rosh HaShana falls on Friday or Sunday, which contradicts constraint number 2. Therefore this year must have 354 days and the next Rosh HaShana will fall on Saturday. However, the accurate length of a lunar month is 29 days, 12 hours, 44 minutes and 3 1/3 seconds. The accurate length of a lunar year (12 lunar months) is therefore 354 days, 8 hours, 48 minutes and 40 seconds. This means that if the Molad of this year occurs on Tuesday 6 AM, the Molad of the following year will occur on Saturday 2:48:40 PM, and Rosh HaShana will have to be postponed to Sunday according to constraint number 1 and then postponed again to Monday according to constraint number 2. In order to do that, this year will have to be 356 days long, which is not possible. The conclusion of the above logic is constraint number 3 which states that if a Molad of a regular year occurs after Tuesday 3:22 AM, Rosh HaShana is postponed to Thursday. Dechia 4 - Molad of Leap Year on Thursday This is a similar situation to the one described in contraint number 4. Here the rule is that if a Molad of a leap year occurs after Thursday 12:00 noon, the next Rosh HaShana is postponed from Monday to Tuesday. All the 4 constraints (Dechiot) can be pre-calculated and represented in tables of short cycles. Hebrew calendar software programs use relatively simple table lookup to determine the exact length of a given year and the date of Rosh HaShana. All the other dates and holidays are calculated by counting up from Rosh HaShana. Reference: Understanding the Jewish Calendar by Rabbi Nathan Bushwick. Moznaim Publishing Corporation, 1989.
“When Moses had spoken thus at the end of his life, and had foretold what would befall to every one of their tribes afterward, with the addition of a blessing to them, the multitude fell into tears, insomuch that even the women, by beating their breasts, made manifest the deep concern they had when he was about to die.
“The children also lamented still more, as not able to contain their grief; and thereby declared, that even at their age they were sensible of his virtue and mighty deeds; and truly there seemed to be a strife betwixt the young and the old, who should most grieve for him.
“The old grieved because they knew what a careful protector they were to be deprived of, and so lamented their future state; but the young grieved, not only for that, but also because it so happened that they were to be left by him before they had well tasted of his virtue.
“Now one may make a guess at the excess of this sorrow and lamentation of the multitude, from what happened to the legislator himself; for although he was always persuaded that he ought not to be cast down at the approach of death, since the undergoing it — as agreeable to the will of God and the law of nature, yet what the people did so overbore him, that he wept himself.
“Now as he went thence to the place where he was to vanish out of their sight, they all followed after him weeping; but Moses beckoned with his hand to those that were remote from him, and bade them stay behind in quiet, while he exhorted those that were near to him that they would not render his departure so lamentable.
“Whereupon they thought they ought to grant him that favor, to let him depart according as he himself desired; so they restrained themselves, though weeping still towards one another.
“All those who accompanied him were the senate, and Eleazar the high priest, and Joshua their commander. Now as soon as they were come to the mountain called Abarim, (which is a very high mountain, situate over against Jericho, and one that affords, to such as are upon it, a prospect of the greatest part of the excellent land of Canaan,) he dismissed the senate; and as he was going to embrace Eleazar and Joshua, and was still discoursing with them, a cloud stood over him on the sudden, and he disappeared in a certain valley, although he wrote in the holy books that he died, which was done out of fear, lest they should venture to say that, because of his extraordinary virtue, he went to God.”
Who was Josephus? This says that this was written by him and can't be found in scripture. How are we supposed to confirm it? I tired finding something in my Bible, but couldn't. I just wonder if it is in the codes or the dead sea scrolls.
After the destruction of Jerusalem, he returned to Rome with Titus and became a client of the Flavian family. He received Roman citizenship and was commissioned to write a history of the Jews. After Titus died, Josephus became an apologist for the Jews rather than just an impartial historian. He wrote Wars of the Jews and Antiquities of the Jews. Having old books, histories and other records available that we don't have, he wrote down many things that might have otherwise been lost to us. The section you sent me is in Antiquities, Book IV. Chapter VII. section 48. In section 49, he wrote that Moses died on Adar 1, the last month in the year (i.e., the Jewish Sacred Year). Joshua led the Israelites into the Promised Land on the following Nisan 10 (Josh. 4:19).
We can learn more if we compare what Josephus said with what the Bible says. Being a Pharisee, Josephus knew what the candlestick and table of shewbread represented. He wrote, "...the candlestick, the table [of shew-bread,] and the altar of incense. Now the seven lamps signified the seven planets; for so many there were springing out of the candlestick. Now, the twelve loaves that were upon the table signified the circle of the zodiac and the year... (Wars. V. V. 5). The candlestick was also mentioned in Ant. III. VII. 7. He said, "...the shaft elevated itself on high from a single base, and spread itself into as many branches as there are planets, including the sun among them. It terminated in seven heads, in one row, all standing parallel to one another; and these branches carried seven lamps, one by one, in imitation of the number of the planets. These lamps looked to the east and to the south, the candlestick being situate obliquely."
Since the western lamp was to always be kept lit, it represented the Sun. The other "planets" (wanderers) were the naked-eye planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn.
The Rabbis of today list Nisan 15 as Passover, even though Lev. 23:5,6 says, "In the fourteenth day of the first month at even is the LORD'S passover. And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the feast of unleavened bread."
Josephus had it straight. He said, "In the month of Xanthicus, which is by us called Nisan, and is the beginning of our year, on the fourteenth day of the lunar month, when the sun is in Aries, (for in this month it was that we were delivered from bondage under the Egyptians,) the law ordained that we should every year slay that sacrifice which I before told you we slew when we came out of Egypt, and which was called the Passover...The feast of unleavened bread succeeds that of the passover, and falls on the fifteenth day of the month, and continues seven days...But on the second day of unleavened bread, which is the sixteenth day of the month, they first partake of the fruits of the earth, for before that day they do not touch them."
This not only locks in Nisan 14 as Passover, it locks in Nisan 16 as Firstfruits. It says nothing about Firstfruits having to come after a weekly Sabbath, as some suggest. All feasts are sabbaths, days of rest, holy convocations. The "morrow after the sabbath" can be the day after the Feast of Unleavened Bread.
Lev 23:10-12 says, "Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When ye be come into the land which I give unto you, and shall reap the harvest thereof, then ye shall bring a sheaf of the firstfruits of your harvest unto the priest: And he shall wave the sheaf before the LORD, to be accepted for you: ON THE MORROW AFTER THE SABBATH the priest shall wave it. And ye shall offer that day when ye wave the sheaf an he lamb without blemish of the first year for a burnt offering unto the LORD."
Firstfruits has to be the second day of Unleavened Bread and Nisan 16, and it follows the Sabbath of the Feast of Unleavened Bread on Nisan 15. Reading what Josephus wrote helps us understand some things in the Bible. Jesus was three days and three nights in the grave.
Mat 12:40 says, "For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale's belly; so shall the Son of man be THREE DAYS AND THREE NIGHTS in the heart of the earth." There were Thursday (day), Friday (night then day), Saturday (night then day), and Sunday (night). Sunday was three days since the Crucifixion. Luk 24:21 says, "But we trusted that it had been he which should have redeemed Israel: and beside all this, to day is THE THIRD DAY SINCE these things were done." Those days were Friday, Saturday and Sunday.
Josephus made some mistakes, as is human, but not many. He tried very hard to be accurate. It is great to have his writings from the first century. Agape
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